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MARCH,1861.    DOUGLASS' MONTHLY.    431
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--the people--to advance the great cause of Union and the Constitution, and not with any one man.  It rests with you alone.  This fact is strongly impressed on my mind at present.  In a community like this, whose appearance testifies to their intelligence, I am convinced that the cause of Liberty and the Union can never been in danger.  Frequent allusion is made to the excitement at present existing in our national politics-it is well that I should also allude to it here.  I think there is no occasion for any excitement.  The crisis, as it is called, is altogether an artificial crisis.  In all parts of the nation there are differences of opinion on politics.  There are differences of opinion even here.  You did not all vote for the person who now addresses you.  What is happening now will not hurt those who are farther way from here.  Have they not all their rights now as they ever have had?  Do they not have their fugitive slaves returned now as ever?  Have they not the same Constitution they have lived under for the last seventy odd years?  Have they not a position as citizens of this common country, and have we any power to change that position?  What, then, is the matter with them--why all this excitement--why all these complaints?  As I said before, this crisis is all artificial.  It has no foundation in fact.--It was not argued up, as the saying is, and cannot, therefore, be argued down.  Let it alone and it will go down of itself.'

At Albany Mr. Lincoln addressed the Senate and Assembly in joint convention assembled, an extract from which we append: 

'I do not propose to enter into an explanation of any particular line of policy as to our present difficulties to be adopted by the incoming Administration.  I deem it just to you, to myself, and to all, that I should see everything, that I should hear everything, that I should have every light that can be brought within my reach, in order that when I do speak I shall have enjoyed every opportunity to take correct and true ground; and or this reason I do not propose to speak at this time of the policy of the Government, but when the time comes, I shall speak as well as I am able for the present and future of this country for the good both of the North and of the South of this country, for the good of the one and the other, and of all sections of the country.  In the meantime, if we have patience, if we restrain ourselves, if we allow ourselves not to be run off with passion, I still have confidence that the Almighty Maker of the Universe will, through the instrumentality of this great and intelligent people, bring us through this, as he has through all the other difficulties of our country.  Relying on this, I again thank you for this generous reception.'

--The first attempt of a vessel to enter a foreign port under the flag of the 'Independent Republic of South Caroline' was made at Havana by a brigantine from Charleston.  She sailed in past the Moro Castle with her 'Palmetto' flying aloft.  But immediately, by order of the officer in command of the fortress, she was brought to anchor under its guns, and kept there until the flag of the United States was displayed at her mast-herd, [sic] when she was permitted to proceed up the harbor.  We wonder what they going to do in Palmetto-dom about this outrage upon their flag in a foreign port.  This insult ought to be avenged forthwith.  A newborn nationality cannot afford to permit its emblematic ensign to be thus dishonored.--[[italics]] Sunday Atlas. [[/italics]]

--It seems Old Ben Wade also goes in for compromise.  He thinks that at least two hundred of the secession leaders should be hung; but he is willing to compromise and hang only a hundred and fifty, if the South will stay in the Union.

--A large meeting of colored citizens was held in Mr. Martin's church, Boston, week before last, for the purpose of protesting against the attempts now being made to disfranchise and drive them from the country.  An appeal to the people of Massachusetts was adopted, asking aid and protection.
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The legitimate effects of secession have already made their appearance in Florida.  Poor people are beginning to feel hungry.  Pork is $30 a barrel, flour $13, corn "1 75, and oats $1.  Establishments which a few weeks ago had eight clerks, have now only one.  Small towns which were thriving have been suddenly checked in their growth, and have a desolate appearance.  All who can are making preparations to come North.  Of course no Northern-born people will willingly remain at the South after secession, for loyalty is still to them a moral obligation and a word of some meaning.  But there is nothing singular in the fact that every one, with any property to save, should be eager to reach some place where life and property can be secured to them.  In Florida, proprietors have already been taxed $14 per head for their negro property, and negroes which sold for $1,100 each six months ago would not now fetch $500.  When our informant left, there was nothing in the State Treasury; and there is every probability that secession will ultimately throw Florida back into a wilderness, and make the State a suitable domain for Seminoles and Camanches.


[[italics]] The Louisville Journal [[/italics]] says that on Wednesday last a highly respectable citizen of Jefferson County, quite a ferocious fire-eater, came into this city to make arrangements for visiting the South on business.  He applied to the Mayor and obtained from that functionary a [[italics]] passport, with a certificate that he lives in Jefferson, that he is a slave-owner, and that he is a friend of the South.  As a reason why he wished such a passport and certificate, he stated that some of his neighbors, who have recently visited the South, were so annoyed and bedeviled with Vigilance Committees that he could not venture to go without first taking precautions against trouble.


Secession is greatly benefiting the freighting-ships and seems [[missing]] enable the Northern manufactures to obtain their cotton much cheaper than it can be laid down in England and France.  The rates of freight to Great Britain and the continent of Europe are now twice as high as usual, and paying great profits to those fortunate enough to have ships in the gulf ports.  At the same time, the coastwise rate has risen only slightly, and this state of things is giving an advantage to the Northern manufacturer of about one cent. a pound in the cost of cotton which he has never before possessed.  Thus secession is making the ship owners rich, and at the same time benefiting the Northern manufacturers.  Why can't Northern men leave the thing alone?


So says the Raleigh (N.C.) [[italics]] Standard. [[/italics]]--That paper assumes, as the basis of its argument, that if the difficulties between the North and the South should not be settled within the next six months, war will be the result; that three or four confederacies will be formed; and that 'it will be impossible for the northwestern and gulf States to avoid war--the navigation of he Mississippi will lead to it.'  After this prophesy of a conflict, the fatal consequences to slavery are pictured as follows:

'If war once breaks out it will rage in the interior, on our seacoasts, on the high seas and on our frontiers.  One section will let loose the Indians on another section.  Twenty millions of northern people will at once become enemies.  They will war upon us along a line of three thousand miles from the Atlantic to the Pacific.  One confederacy will humble itself before the powers of Europe to get better commercial terms than the other confederacies.  Meanwhile war will rage.  Negro property will cease to be valuable, because the products of slave labor and all other labor will be in a great degree cut off from the markets of the world.  The negroes will know, too, that the war is waged on their account.  They will become restless and turbulent.--Heavy taxes will result from these wars.--
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These taxes must be paid mainly out of slave labor.  Strong governments will be established, and will bear heavily on the masses.  The masses will rise up and destroy everything in their way.  State bonds will be repudiated.  Banks will break.  Widows and orphans will be reduced to beggary.  The sword will wave everywhere paramount to all law.  The whole world outside the slaveholding States, with slight exceptions, is opposed to slavery; and the whole world, with slave labor thus rendered insecure and comparatively valueless, will take sides with the North against us.--The end will be--Abolition!'


The blockade of the Mississippi River is producing its natural effect in arousing a bitterly vindictive feeling throughout the northwest.  Measures of retaliation already begin to be talked of.  The Cincinnati [[italics]] Gazette [[/italics]] goes so far as to recommend the destruction of the embankment on the river.  It says:

'By breaking down the embankments we can easily overflow all the country of the lower Mississippi, and drown out the towns and plantations.'

The terrible effect of crevasses on the southern plantations in former years are not yet forgotten, and this threat from the West bears a peculiar significance.  We may look for curious developments in this warfare of the river, but it is to be hoped that extreme measures on either side will be avoided.


[[italics]] The Southern Cultivator, [[/italics]] an agricultural journal issued at Augusta, Ga., says:--We have suddenly been brought into a position which suggest grave propabilities of war.--We are therefore arming.  But we labor under a greater deficiency than the want of arms.--It is the want of bread.  The State of Georgia has not now grain enough within her limits to feed her population and domestic animals until the gathering of the next crop.  It is presumed that the rest of the Cotton States are in a similar condition.  Last year we obtained our supplies from the North-west.  It may be that our currency will be in a condition to prevent this supply, except at ruinous sacrifices.  It may be that we shall be cut off from it altogether.  This is probable, unless these supplies are immediately procured.  We are presenting in Georgia, at this moment, the anomalous spectacle of a people having upwards of twenty millions of dollars' worth of the earth's products for sale, yet requiring a large proportion of the results of sale to buy the common necessaries of life, which are also the products of  the soil!  If we were to write until doomsday in advocacy of a mixed husbandry, we could not utter language so forcible as that which is uttered by the present crisis.  We are surprised.  We are caught unprepared.--We have much to sell, nobody to buy, and little or nothing to wear.


The Southern Literary Messenger for last month, published at Richmond, Virginia, has just been revealing some of the purposes of the slaveholding rebels, in breaking up the Union.  One of them, and the main one, is to abolish universal white suffrage.  It declare the experiment of a Republican Government, based upon the universal suffrage of the white man, to be a disgraceful failure, and openly avows the design of the rebels to create a Southern Republic upon a white suffrage, limited to men of sufficient property for annual subsistence upon the usufruct! [sic] In other words, the policy of these rebels is to reduce society in the Slave States to the feudal condition again, with African Slavery for its basis, and to adopt such legislation as will compel the poor white man to emigrate, and to confine the dominant class to the fewest possible numbers.

--The Senate of Alabama has passed a bill requiring all free negroes to leave the State by the 1st of January, 1862, or be sold into slavery.
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