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Original scanned October 1, 2002. Reduced print — for full-sized print, see Davis Box 163, Folder 11

[[Page number]] 2 [[/Page number]]
Sat., Jan. 8, 1955

This Is Chicago 
An outsize village on the shores of Lake Michigan, with more Poles than in Warsaw, more Irish than County Clare, more Italians than Naples, and an estimated 950,000 colored folks who comprise the largest minority group in the town. 

It's your hometown, so you can talk about it as much as you want - it's good points and bad ones.

It could only happen here. 

At the Illinois Central station, an old woman with a carpet bag and brown paper sack for vault depositing, walks up to you and says: "Does you know John?"

Patient questioning and a telephone call finally locate her nephew who promises to come down to the station and get her. This is only one related incident of the "Great Exodus" which began in World War I and is still continuing with every train arrival from the Deep South.

As a returned native you find the changes awesome. For example, the skyline at 36th and South Parkway with the shafts of the Lake Meadows project buildings and the new shopping center in contrast to the tenements which had to give way for progress. Hop over to 25th and State st., and you find the old grimy buildings tumbling like the Walls of Jericho.  

This is part of the fabulous political empire, Negro controlled, over which one of the brainiest and wiliest in the game presides, Congressman William L. Dawson. Few realize that the geographical boundaries are shifting because Negroes are spreading continually South into better neighborhoods. 

This, is Chicago, a dirty shirt town with its Trumbull Parks and its tensions, growing, fighting, and cussing and still the place where, as a Negro, if you can't make it here you can't make it anywhere. 

More About Chicago
Last week folks were talking about the reported secret plan of the Board of Education to gerrymander school districts to make new all new Negro schools. 

The gerrymandering would dump the comparatively few Negroes who attend Lindblom high school into Parker high school which, in the last two years, has become saturated. 

While Bishop Bernard J. Sheil was keeping dutifully quiet about his removal as head of the Catholic Youth Organization which he founded, the storm was still raging and the CYO was suffering a severe setback. 

It would be interesting to know: What the fighting priest who earned the respect and admiration of people of every creed, had to say to the cab driver on his way to accept the annual Sidney Hillman Award when he let himself go for a moment and poured out his feelings. And the decentralizing of the Immigration and Naturalization Chicago division which caused one employe to have a heart attack and another one to be carried out when her blood pressure reached the bursting point. 

In our plant, Ye Ol' Christmas and New Year's Spirit had some extra undercurrents of excitement as The CHICAGO DEFENDER got ready to celebrate its 50th anniversary. From the twinkle in Publisher John H. Sengstacke's eye, we got an optimistic feeling that 1955 is going to be the biggest and best year yet. 

The Army Departs
In Battle Creek, Mich., cereal capital of the Nation, an air of ghostliness spreads over the town since the closing down of Fort Custer and Percy Jones hospital. As with so many communities with army bases, a large part of the town's economy was dependent upon the hospital and the nearby camp. Particularly affected were many Negroes. Merchants also suffered reverses. 

When the Office of Civilian Defense decentralized and moved to Battle Creek, a partial balance was restored but the townspeople say that only a few persons could qualify for the clerical positions.

On west Van Buren st., at the Mt. Zion Methodist church, a beautiful new addition has been built onto the old small edifice, erected the same year the DEFENDER was launched by Robert E. Abbots in 1905. Most of the work was done or supervised by Rev. James H. A. Mitcham, the pastor, a contractor and graduate of Tuskegee Institute.

In the basement is the cornerstone of the old church which when opened revealed copies of Battle Creek papers of 1861 telling of the outbreak of the War Between the States and a later edition of 1865 bannering the Emancipation Proclamation.

Divine "Mr. B."
At the Italian Village in San Francisco, Billy Eckstine was swooning them last week with his excellent repertoire and a super show to support him. Seems like Billy grows more handsome with the years, his voice more divine.

We particularly liked his tribute to Duke Ellington which took you back over the years and included a medley ranging from "Mood Indigo" to "Satin Doll." But even more clever was that take off on "Ireland Must Be Heaven, for My Mother Came from There," in which Billy gave some anthropological explorations of his ancestry and then came up with the closing line:

"You ask how my name got to be Eckstine. Well on the way to Harlem, my grandparents detoured through Palestine."

Negative and Positive
In last week's edition of U.S. News and World Report is an interview with Henri Cornelis, the Vice Governor General of the Belgian Congo. This report gives an insight to the philosophy of the white man's rein over Africa which is fast leading to the disaster as prophesied by an Anglican priest in South Africa. 

Cornelis bluntly admits that the 18 million natives who are ruled by 7,000 white civil servants have no voice in their government, but he insists that under a "benevolent" policy, the natives are satisfied. Asked if there is a color bar in the Congo, he replied no, that it was a question of social differentiation, a question of fact and not principle. 

Cornelis claims that the assimilation of the native into European life would be unfeasible from his point of view. The report reveals that only a dozen natives have been permitted to leave the Congo to study in Belgium and that until very recently, a native could not get an education beyond high school as there were no colleges or universities for them. Now the first one has been established and it takes care of only about 30 persons. Cornelis claims a modification to the old rules which sent the natives to jail if they did not produce their quota of crops. Says he: 

"Suppose 100,000 men have been assigned a production quota and none of them meets it. How can you imprison 100,000 men?"

On the positive side, we want to add our peans of praise to the superb documentary report by Edward R. Murrow on South Africa. We hope that for those of you who missed it, that there will be a repeat performance as we consider it a MUST.

Tidbits and Tattlings
Sen. Hubert Humphrey has announced that he will introduce a new bill for an FEP law.

The excitement generated when those special trains from Detroit unloaded all those well-wishers who came in see the swearing in of Charles Diggs as Congressman. Capitol Hill had never seen anything like it. 

That debutante reception in the Crystal Ballroom of Washington's Willard hotel set everybody across the country agog and made the front pages of daily papers.

This is a belated apology to Chicago's Baxter Collier, jr., for our failing to show at the annual convention of the National Association of Real Estate Brokers in Philly. The blame must be placed on the National Association for the Advancement of White People, whose self-appointed president Bryant W. Bowles was busy sowing racial disorders in Delaware and keeping us on the jump.

Summing Up The Whole
Full of Christmas turkey and looking the new Year's goose in the eye has made us lazy and contented as a Carnation cow. 1955 means only eight more Years to go to 1963 and the completion of the Freedom Fulfillment campaign. Kinda think we will make it, especially after the most heartening news comes in that a "massive retaliation" against the economic boycott has gotten underway.

The NAACP has sent $80,000 down to the TriState Bank in Memphis to be used to assist the victims of the boycott in Mississippi. Ain't it wonderful? Come on all you not-too-scared people and get on the Freedom Train. We're gonna get right up and board too 'cause we don't want to miss the excitement. It's wonderful time to be alive? Amen! 

[[image-a headshot photo of an African-American male]]
[[image-a headshot photo of an African-American male]]

[[caption]] REGISTERED in courses leading to doctorate degrees are Raymond Wilkins (top) of Chicago, (University of Chicago), and Paul L. Brown, Baton Rouge, La., (University of Illinois). They are two of 28 Negro students awarded scholarships and fellowships by the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis for the 1954-55 school year. [[/caption]]

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Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

Clarence Mitchell, head of the NAACP's Washington bureau, earlier in the week, had voiced the explosive charge that top GOP brass had kicked Mrs. Spaulding upstairs from one job with the intention of dropping her altogether.

The NAACP charge stemmed from the fact that ten months after her initial appointment in April 1955 to the post of assistant to Oveta Culp Hobby, Secretary of Health Education and Welfare, Mrs. Spaulding's post with Mrs. Hobby was "abolished." Washington scuttlebutt explained that Mrs. Spaulding had been unable to see eye-to-eye with the Texas born Mrs. Hobby on matters of racial discrimination.

Next, Mrs. Spaulding was given a post with the War Claims Commission headed by Nelson A. Rockefeller. Last week the news got out that she had been notified she was being dropped from her position because of a reduction in staff.

The NAACP protest voiced by Mitchell recalled that when the NAACP and New York Congressman Adam Clayton Powell accused Secretary Hobby with seeking to delay integration in schools on military bases, Mrs. Spaulding had refused to send out a letter repudiating the charges. Mitchell also recalled that Spaulding had made "forthright" speeches attacking discrimination and opposing the grant of $1,500,000 to a municipal hospital in Mrs. Hobby's home town of Houston, Texas. She had based her refusal on the unwillingness of the hospital to agree to permit Negro doctors full use of its facilities.

In her new post Mrs. Spaulding will act as consultant on community development work. This embraces a phase of the government's Point Four program of aid to under-developed countries and involves education, welfare and other problems of "backward" areas.

The FOA spokesman said Mrs. Spaulding may go overseas for the agency "depending on her qualifications." He said that while no one job is in mind, most of the agency's work is in the Far East and Middle East. He added she would be changed to a permanent annual salary basis if sent abroad.

With each shift in position, Mrs. Spaulding's earning capacity has increased. Her job with Mrs. Hobby paid $3950. The post with the Foreign Claims Settlement Organization brought her $10,000. In her present position, if paid on a fifty-two week basis, she would receive a basic salary of $11,500 with a possible twenty percent increase for overseas service.

Retorting to the NAACP blast, Foreign Claims SEttlement Commission head, Whitney Gilliland, said the staff had been faced with a cut of seventy-five persons and doubted that he could have justified the retention of Mrs. Spaulding.

Administration officials, also replying to the charge, denied the ghost of Hooby has haunted Mrs. Spaulding. Mrs. Spaulding's difficulties were more of a personal nature, due to her qualifications for high-level posts.

Pioneer Topekan Dies At 87

Mrs. Julia B. Roundtree, 87, one of the pioneer settlers of color in Topeka, Kans., passed away in Chicago Thursday at the home of her son, Harry O. Abbott.

For 60 years, Mrs. Roundtree, former teacher, was an important factor in the cultural and civic life of Topeka. She was widely known throughout Kansas, Missouri and the Middle West.

Mrs. Roundtree's outstanding qualities were enumerated during a memorial for her held last Sunday. Speakers included Rev. A. Wayman Ward and Rev. Russell Brown, both of whom came under the influenced of Mrs. Roundtree during their youthful days in Topeka where her other son, Aaron Abbott, resides.

A feature of the memorial was the reading of a remarkable letter written by Mrs. Roundtree to her son, Harry, on her 70th birthday. Her body was shipped to Topeka.

Four Youths Attempt to Kill Policeman
NEW ORLEANS, LA. - The teenage sons of a prominent politician and influential pastor were involved last week in an alleged attempt to kill a policeman.

One of the youths was the son of Jackson V. Acox, local political leader. The second youth was the son of Rev. I. H. Gordon. According to police they were two of four youths who had stolen an automobile and were chased by police.

Overtaking the four boys, one officer attempted to talk with one of the youths. As he passed in front of the stolen auto the driver stepped on the gas in an attempt to run down the officer. Then the lads took off again on another escape attempt. But this time a brick wall stopped them and demolished the car.

The four youths were arrested, charged with stealing a car, fleeing arresting officers and attempted murder.

Cleric To Speak
FAYETTEVILLE, Ark. - (ANP) A Negro minister will be among the group of speakers at the University of Arkansas Religious Emphasis week for the first time.

Dr. Calvin K. Steinaker, minister of First Baptist church, Tulsa, Okla., will participate.

Pair End 25,000 Mile Quaker Trip

PHILADELPHIA - (ANP) - A 48-year-old white woman and an 18-year-old Negro girl arrived here last week after a three month, 25,000 mile "Journey of Friendship" tour of the world sponsored by a group of Quakers.

Designed to promote better understanding between Americans and other peoples, the trip was financed by members of the Abington Monthly Meeting of Friends. The trip cost $4,000, including $3,124 in plane fares.

It took Mrs. Dorothy Hutchinson of Jenkintown a suburb, and Miss Hazel DuBois of Philadelphia to 11 countries. They spent a few days as guests in 36 homes of visited countries.

One of the original supporters of the trip said that it was the first of its kind to be sponsored by Quakers. 

Initially, Mrs. Hutchinson, mother of three children, was to go alone, but it was decided that she should have a companion.

Her husband was among those who suggested that a Negro go along to give the trip an interracial character.

Miss Du Bois is on the staff at the Friends Neighborhood Guild, a social center for an economically depressed area here. She postponed the start of her college career at the University of Puerto Rico to make the journey.
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paying vocations where there are manpower shortages - such as medicine, chemistry, engineering - then add the of cost of crime, delinquency and social maladjustment which can be traced directly to discrimination and prejudice, and, finally, add the cost of segregation which are the direct result of discriminatory practices, you'll find on calculation that the discrimination comes to roughly $10 out of every $75 pay check, or in total dollar terms, $30,000,000,000 lost every year."

Ravings of Prof. Doodle
[[image - two panel cartoon. In the upper panel two men are seated at a lunch counter. First man says "Man, you should have a job like I have. My boss doesn't do a thing without askin' me what I think about it. If I was to quit...the joint would fold up!" Second man asks waitress behind lunch counter: "May I have a glass of water, miss?" In the lower panel, the second man says to the first: "So you're a big wheel? Well...stick your finger in this glass of water. Now, pull it out. Notice how quick the hole filled? That's how quick your place can be filled if you would quit! And the joint as you call it...would still go on!" First man has an open-mouthed look of shock on his face.]]

[[image - photo of three men, two seated, one standing]]
[[caption]] AVERELL HARRIMAN (left) governor-elect of New York, announces the appointments of Herbert B. Evans (standing) and George A. Mooney. Evans was appointed as confidential law assistant and Mooney was named superintendent of banks. Evans is a native of Kansas City who studied in Chicago, Washington, D. C., and Brooklyn. [[/caption]]

Humphrey Plans New FEP Fight
WASHINGTON - The perennial fight for a federal law prohibiting racial bias in employment policies of major industries will be set off once more when Congress convenes.

Minnesota's Democratic Senator Humphrey announced Tuesday that he will renew the fight for such legislation by introducing a bill proposing a set of standards to compel about 70,000 of the larger manufacturing and processing industries to observe a code of equal hiring opportunities.

The bill would establish a federal commission instructed to seek compliance through negotiation, but with authority to apply for federal court orders where necessary. Violations would be punishable as contempt of court. A companion bill would seek the creation of a Civil Rights Commission to serve as a consulting agency to the government. In the past, introduction of such legislation has touched off bitter intra-Congress fights with Dixie Democrats and some Republicans forming an opposing bloc against it.

Rent Set at $1 In Firetrapped N.Y. Apts.

NEW YORK - Tenants of a building recently ravaged by fire here have a new rent ceiling which will be in force until owners and landlords have removed all violations to safe human occupancy.

The ceiling is $1 per month.

The housing commissioner took action to punish owners who have been collecting $50 to $79 a month per apartment from tenants without bothering to make necessary alterations. The apartments are located at 2597 Seventh ave.

In recent weeks there have been two disastrous fires which destroyed property, left families homeless and took a toll of three lives.

In one Eighth ave. apartment which caught fire, 26 persons were found to be living in four rooms and entertaining additional persons as overnight visitors.

Hold Rites For John W. Lawlah

BESSEMER, Ala. - (ANP) - Funeral services for John Wesley Lawlah, 79-year old father of Mrs. Johnnie Maye Washington principal of McCalla Elementary school, were held last week.

Survivors include: two sons, Dr. Clyde A. Lawlah, physician, of Pine Bluff, Ark., and Dr. John W. Lawlah, a radiologist, of Washington, D. C.; two daughters, Dr. Evelyn Johnson, a doctor of social science, North Carolina college at Durham, N.C.; and Mrs. Washington.

Lincoln Slates Founders Meet

JEFERSON CITY, Mo. - Education: The Essence of Democracy - is the theme of the Founders' Day observance at Lincoln university of Missouri, scheduled for Sunday, Jan. 16.

The afternoon convocation will be highlighted by an address by Dr. Homer Price Rainey, outstanding educator author.

An international dinner will be held in the University dining hall, with Joseph D. Bibb, director of public safety, State of Illinois, as principal speaker.

Woman Killed in New Orleans Fire

NEW ORLEANS, La. - Fire which broke out in a two-story residence at 723 N. Robertson Christmas morning claimed the life of Ciresy Glaspy, 45, who was alone in one of the rear apartments. The woman's body was found near a closed window. Apparently she had suffocated before she could open the window and escape across an adjoining roof.

Other residents succeeded in fleeing the building to safety.

Ala. Clerics OK Jim Crow Church

BIRMINGHAM - White Methodist clergymen of this city have gone on record in favor of maintaining the jim crow setup of the national church.

In a resolution the Birmingham Methodist Ministers Association, meeting at First Church, "endorsed, approved and commended" a recent statement by District Superintendent Dr. H. Lawrence Dill against "any movement that will add to the tension that already exists with regard to segregation." 

Dill's statement was made in opposition to the re-opening of a drive to abolish the infamous Central Jurisdiction, the all-Negro segment of the connection. White Methodists belong to jurisdictions according to geographical locations, while Negro members all over the United States belong to the Central Jurisdiction under a Negro bishop.

The anti-integration statement of the Association declared:
"We in the North Alabama Conference are thoroughly committed to the retention of the Central Jurisdiction, and all the other jurisdictions as they are now. We believe that the vast majority of our people, preachers and laymen alike, are agreed on this.

"We do not question the sincerity of any group and we accord to every man the rights to his opinions and convictions. But we will have no part in any movement that will encourage racial prejudice and hatred and that will add to the tension that already exists."

Mourn Death of Jerry Anderson
BUFFALO, N. Y. - Gerald G. Anderson, Sr., retired postal clerk and associate editor of the Buffalo Broadcaster fro 14 years, died Thursday in the Hospital following an extended illness.

Anderson was an intimate of many theatrical personalities.

He helped organize the popular Mayor of Coppertown competition here.

The deceased's son, Gerald, arrived from California shortly before his father's death.

In addition to his son, survivors are a daughter, Laura Howard, another son, Robert and six grandchildren. The deceased lived with his daughter and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Donald Howard. He was buried in Forest Lawn in the same plot with his former wife, Laura.

Bury Wife of Gary Attorney

GARY, Ind. - Funeral services were held last week for Mrs. Benjamin Wilson at St. Timothy's Community church here, with Rev. Theodore Richardson officiating.

Mrs. Wilson, wife of City Councilman Benjamin Wilson, died suddenly Dec. 29 at Chicago's Provident hospital. She was 42.

A native of Camden, Ark., Mrs. Wilson was a prominent civic and church worker. Surviving besides her husband, whom she married in St. Louis, Mo., 25 years ago, is a son, John B., a student at Howard university, Washington, D. C.

Burial was in Fern Oak cemetery in Gary.

Coast Guardsmen Find Man's Body

NEW ORLEANS - Coast Guardsmen found the body of 69-year-old Ephraim Mabry, retired freight handler, in the Mississippi River early Friday morning.

The body was recovered as a Coast Guard cutter was grappling for another body and two longshoremen reported seeing a man jump into the river early in the morning.

The longshoremen, Sam Derstla and Bernie Meyers, said they saw the man jump after yelling "hey" to them. Efforts were made to throw the man a line but he went under before it could reach him.

Mabry's body was taken to the Barracks street wharf where a Charity hospital ambulance doctor pronounced him dead.

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along, had wanted Japan invited. Indonesia does not recognize Japan, and was thus reluctant, at first, to invite a representative from Tokyo.

The proposed parley is said to have the "approval of Washington officials." However, the official attitude of the United States is expected to determine whether such nations as Ethiopia and Liberia will accept invitations.

One of the issues being debated is whether it is proper to invite Red China in view of the fact that it is holding 11 American airmen prisoners.

Another question which has arisen concerns the status of such countries as Haiti, the West Indies and Mexico, which are neither Asian or African but which have problems more in common with countries from the two continents.
Bunche Wins Peace Award

Dr. Ralph J. Bunche, deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations, was presented the Franciscan Peace Award in Chicago last week by the Rev. Adolph Bernholz, of St. Cecelia's Church in Fonda, N. Y. 

The award, presented Dr. Bunche in recognition of "his untiring efforts to bring peace among men," is given annually by the federated provinces of the Third Order of St. Francis.

Dr. Bunche, in accepting the award, was paid tribute by some 100,000 Franciscans, whose theme is "peace in the heart, in the home, in the world," because said Rev. Bernholz, chairman of the provinces' executive board, "he has exemplified the spirit of St. Francis by placing his life in jeopardy that he might help to obtain a cessation of the worldwide bloody struggle and encourage men to live together as brothers under the Fatherhood of God."

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charged, "is being subjected to the undisguised economic intimidation, admittedly designed to curb civil rights and . . . to discourage registration and voting.

"And it is designed to force abandonment of efforts to secure peaceful compliance with the May 17 ruling of the United States Supreme Court outlawing racial segregation in public schools."

The Citizens councils, of Mississippi, a white neo-kluxism group is bringing economic pressure to bear on Negroes by foreclosing mortgages and loans (or threatening to do so) which are held by white lenders.

Last Tuesday Dr. T. R. M. Howard, of Mound Bayou, Miss., head of the Regional Council of Leadership; Masonic Grandmaster James C. Gilliam, of Clarksdale, Miss.; Dr. J. E. Walker, founder of Universal Life Insurance Co. and chairman of the board of the Memphis Tri-State Bank, met in Memphis with Roy Wilkins, NAACP administrator.

They completed plans for the Tri-State bank to serve as a lending agency. An appeal is being made to organizations over the nation, Dr. Howard said, to deposit cash reserves at the bank.

The goal is a million dollars in deposits. The money will be available to oppressed businessmen, farmers and homeowners in Mississippi.

Depositors will receive 2 1/2 percent interest.

"This is no give away," Dr. Howard emphasized. "By placing your money in Tri-State Bank of Memphis, 80 percent of it will be available for lending in this emergency."

The Defender learned that the NAACP is to start the financial ball rolling. The organization is to deposit $10,000 in the Tri-State bank for lending, it was reported.

Leaders are urging that money so deposited will be left in the bank at least a year.

"This is a chance," Dr. Howard declared, "for Negroes to show their financial might." 

Charter S. C. Group To Organize Voters

DARLINGTON, S. C. - A new organization which aims to organize 120,000 Negro voters throughout the state was recently chartered.

Leader of the new Palmetto State Voters Association Inc. is W. T. Hunter, Darlington county political leader.

Chicago Defender
Vol. I - No. [[??]] Jan 3, 1955
Founded May 6, 1905, [[?]]
Provided by
1435 Inglade Ave. Chicago

Davis B009 F020 1 sh2of 2

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