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SEPTEMBER 1955 17 his discovery came in 1929, when he received the Nobel Prize in Physics. He was also awarded the Henri Poincaré Medal of the Académie des Sciences in 1929. Much of de Broglie's time since 1926 has been devoted to teaching, at first as a lecturer at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Paris where, in 1928, he was appointed professor of theoretical physics at the Henri Poincaré Institute. In 1943, to help make the bonds between physicists and mathematicians closer, de Broglie founded the center of studies in applied mathematics at the Henri-Poincaré Institute. "Teaching is an interesting thing," de Broglie said in his interview with André Gillois, "which goes well enough with research." During the 1930's, his research was chiefly concerned with electrons and light. From these came a new theory of the photon, which he established in a note published in the Revue Générale des Sciences of January 1934. "A photon," noted de Broglie, "must be constituted by two complementary corpuscles, as are the electron and the positron, the emission of a photon corresponding to the creation of a pair of these demiphotons (neutrinos)." Since both Prince de Broglie and his brother (the former as a theoretical physicist and the latter as an experimental physicist) had profoundly influenced atomic thought prior to World War II, in 1945 they were named counselors to the French High Commission on Atomic Energy. Deeply interested in the peaceful development of atomic energy, Prince de Broglie is concerned with strengthening the bonds between science and industry. Elected a member of the Académie des Sciences in 1933, de Broglie became its permanent secretary in 1942. On October 8, 1944, his distinction as a writer was marked by his election to the Académie Française, to which he was ceremoniously inducted by his elder brother on May 31, 1945. (Their father and grandfather had also been members of the Académie Française.) De Broglie in 1953 was one of four foreign members elected to the Royal Society, London, England. He is a fellow of the Academy of Sciences of Sweden, Academy of Sciences and Letters of Cracow, Academy of Science of Bucharest, Academy of Science of Lima, and Société de Physique et Histoire Naturelle in Geneva, and a member of the Bureau des Longitudes. In 1954 he was named a grand officer of the Legion of Honor. In May 1952 de Broglie was awarded the Kalinga Prize, established by the Indian industrialist M. Patnaik and bestowed by the United Nations, in the amount of £1,000 "for the work which has most contributed to the popularization of scientific knowledge." Other honors he has received are the Albert-Ier Grand Prize of Monaco (1932) and the Order of Leopold of Belgium. In June 1953 he received the grand prize of the Society of Engineers of France. The Prince is the author of more than twenty books, several of which have been published in English, including: Selected Papers on Wave Mechanics (Blackie, 1928), An Introduction of Wave Mechanics (Methuen, 1930), Matter and Light (Allen & Unwin, 1939 and Dover, 1946), and The Revolution in Physics; A Non-Mathematical Survey of Quanta (Noonday Press, 1953). It was in his capacity as permanent secretary of the Académie des Sciences that de Broglie introduced to its members one of the major studies of the effect of thermonuclear explosions on the human race. By his sponsorship, scientific circles learned of the work of Charles-Noël Martin, a researcher on the staff of the Centre National des Recherches Scientifiques. In Martin's communication read by de Broglie on November 22, 1954, and quoted by Figaro the following day, the issue of both immediate and future harmful effects from radioactive fall-out was raised. For exercise, de Broglie likes walking. He enjoys "reading, reflection, or games like chess." References Hommes et Mondes no83 Je '53 L'Illustration 87 pt2:583 N 23 '29 por Sci Am 142:183 Mr '30 Dictionnaire Biographique Français Contemporain (1954) Diamant-Berger, M. Que êtes vous? (1953) Heathcote, N. H. de V. Nobel Prize Winners in Physics, 1901-50 (1953) Who's Who, 1955 World Biography (1954) BROSIO, MANLIO (GIOVANNI) (bros'io man'lio) July 10, 1897- Ambassador from Italy to the United States Address: b. c/o Embassy of Italy, 1601 Fuller St., Washington 9, D. C.; h. 2700 16th St., Washington, D.C.; Via Bertola 86, Turin, Italy For "the top post in the Italian diplomatic service," Manlio Brosio was chosen as Ambassador to the United States in January 1955. Although not a career diplomat, he has served in similar capacities in Moscow and in London. He hopes to strengthen the bonds between Italy and America, and to continue the work of his predecessor, Alberto Tarchiani, who had served ten years as Italy's postwar Ambassador to the United States. Brosio proposes to strive for moral and, if necessary, economic support for his country. Italy's foreign policy, as he sees it, "is in perfect harmony with the policy of the United States." "We have fully understood," he declared in his first public address in this country, "that the present stand of the United States about Formosa has no provocative intention whatever, but is a serious attempt to draw a clear-cut line in a troubled area where uncertainty could be fatal" (New York Times, February 16, 1955). Manlio Giovanni Brosio was born on July 10, 1897 in Turin. His father, the late Edoardo Brosio, was a judge. His mother was Fortunata (Curadelli) Brosio. His birthplace is the second largest city in northern Italy, and a great
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