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32 GENERALS OF THE ARMY AND THE AIR FORCE AND ADMIRALS OF THE NAVY [[line across page]] by President Truman on April 11, 1951. He then returned to the United States, arriving in San Francisco April 17. He later became Chairman of the Board of Remington Rand, Inc. Thanks of the House of Representatives, the Senate, the Philippine National Assembly, the Philippine Congress, and the Australian Government have been expressed to General MacArthur for his part in liberating the Philippine Islands during World War II. He has been awarded the Congressional medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Cross with one Oak Leaf Cluster, Distinguished Service Medal with four Oak Leaf Clusters, Silver Star with six Oak Leaf Clusters, the Purple Heart with one Oak Leaf Cluster, and the Distinguished Flying Cross. His foreign decorations include the Philippine Medal of Valor, Distinguished Service Star, Defense Medal, and Liberation Medal; British Knight Grand Cross of the Bath; French Grand Officer, Legion of Honor Fourragere, and Croix de Guerre with four Palms; Belgian Commander Order of Crown; Netherlands Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau with Swords (Military Division); Italian War Cross and Grand Cordon Order of the Crown; Polish Grand Croix Polonia Restituta and Virtuae Militaire; Hungarian Grand Cross Order of Military Merit; Czechoslovakian Grand Cross Order of White Lion; Yugoslavian Grand Cross Order of Military Merit; Mexican Grand Cross of Military Merit; Ecuadorian First Class Decoration Abdon Calderon, and Greek Medal of Valor. Following are the citations for his American military awards: Medal of Honor: "For conspicuous leadership in preparing the Philippine Islands to resist conquest, for gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call to duty in action against invading Japanese Forces, and for the heroic conduct of defensive and offensive operations on the Bataan Peninsula. He mobilized, trained and led an army which has received world acclaim for its gallant defense against a tremendous superiority of enemy forces in men and arms. His utter disregard of personal danger under heavy fire and aerial bombardment, his calm judgment in each crisis, inspired his troops, galvanized the spirit of resistance of the Filipino people, and confirmed the faith of the American people in their armed forces." Distinguished Service Cross: "For heroism in the Salient du Feys, France, March 9, 1918. When Company D, 168th Infantry, was under severe attack in the Salient du Feys, he voluntarily joined it, upon finding that he could do so without interfering with his normal duties, and by his coolness and conspicuous courage aided materially in its success." Oak Leaf Cluster to the Distinguished Service Cross: "As Brigade Commander, General MacArthur personally led his men and by the skillful maneuvering of his brigade made possible the capture of Hills 288, 242, and the Cote de Chatilon, October 14, 15 and 16, 1918. He displayed indomitable resolution and great courage in rallying broken lines and in reforming attacks thereby making victory possible. On a field where courage was the rule, his courage was the dominant feature." Distinguished Service Medal: "He served with credit as Chief of Staff of the 24th Division in the operations at Chalons and at the Chateau Thierry Salient. In command of the 84th Infantry Brigade he showed himself to be a brilliant commander of skill and judgment. Later he served with distinction as commanding general of the 42nd Division." First Oak Leaf Cluster to the Distinguished Service Medal: "As Chief of Staff of the Army of the United States since November 21, -1930, he has performed his many important and exacting duties with signal success. He devised and developed the Four-Army organization of our land forces; he conceived and established the General Headquarters Air Force, thus immeasurably increasing the effectiveness of our air defenses; he initiated a comprehensive program of modernization in the Army's tactics, equipment, training, and organization. In addition, the professional counsel and assistance he has continuously rendered to the President, to the Secretary of War and to the Congress have been distinguished by such logic, vision and accuracy as to contribute markedly to the formulation of sound defense policies and the enactment of progressive laws for promoting the nation's security." Second Oak Leaf Cluster to the Distinguished Service Medal: "For exceptionally distinguished service as Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific since March 1942. Under extremely difficult conditions of terrain, climate and limited forces and material, he expelled the enemy from eastern New Guinea, secured lodgments on the Island of New Britain, gave strategical direction to coordinated operations resulting in the conquest of the New Georgia Group and the establishment of the United States Army and Navy forces on Bougainville Island. He had inflicted heavy losses on the enemy and established his forces in positions highly favorable for the construction of offensive operations. Third Oak Leaf Cluster to the Distinguished Service Medal: "As Supreme Commander of Allied Air, Ground and Sea Forces in the Southwest Pacific, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur planned and personally directed the campaigns which resulted in the liberations of the Philippine Islands. Strongly entrenched and superior enemy forces were overwhelmed and completely destroyed in a series of decisive operations exploiting United States air and sea superiority, coupled with the resolute and courageous fighting of the Ground Forces. The immediate result of the campaign was control of the China Sea, the isolation of Japanese forces in Burma, Malaya and Indo-China and the termination of coastwide traffic supporting the Japanese Armies in Central and South China. "The liberation of the Philippines began with the landings on Leyte on October 20 in which complete strategical surprise was achieved. After bitter fighting under most difficult conditions of weather and terrain, General MacArthur destroyed the Japanese forces which included the noted 1st Division of the Kwantung Army. Again surprising the enemy, General MacArthur moved his forces boldly up the western coast of the main Philippine Island and effected a landing on the shores of Lingayen Gulf on January 9, 1945. The flawless execution of this hazardous amphibous [[end page]] [[start page]] FEBRUARY, 1955 ISSUE 33 [[line across page]] approach and landing so disorganized the enemy that in a series of deep thrusts Manila was liberated on February 25. The fortress of Corregidor fell soon afterward in a brilliantly conceived and directed combined land, sea and air operation. By the end of June only isolated groups of the enemy remained on Luzon. "While the U. S. 6th Army was so engaged, 8th Army units cleared the enemy from the southern islands in a series of amphibious operations. By July 4 organized resistance had terminated, completing the liberation of the Philippine Islands and the 17,000,000 inhabitants from Japanese domination. More than 300,000 dead and 7,000 prisoners were lost by the enemy, our casualties in killed, wounded and missing totaling 60,628. Seventeen of our divisions had opposed and defeated 23 enemy division. The Air, Ground and Naval Forces worked in complete unison to inflict this crushing disaster on the Japanese Army." For his services in Korea, General MacArthur was awarded the Fourth Oak Leaf Cluster to the Distinguished Service Medal and the Distinguished Flying Cross. The citations follow: Fourth Oak Leaf Cluster to the Distinguished Service Medal: "For distinguished service to the peoples of the United States and the Republic of Korea, and to the peoples of all free nations. having been designated as the first field commander of United Nations armed forces, and directed, in the common interest, to repel an armed attack upon the Republic of Korea and to restore international peace and security in the area, he has given these forces conspicuously brilliant and courageous leadership and discerning judgment of the highest order. Having been compelled to commit his troops to combat under extremely adverse conditions and against heavy odds in order to gain the time so imperatively needed for the buildup of his forces for the counter-offensive, he has so inspired his command by his vision, his judgment, his indomitable will and his unshakable faith, that it has set a shining example of gallantry and tenacity in defense and of audacity in attack matched by but few operations in military history . . . ." Distinguished Flying Cross: "For outstanding heroism and extraordinary achievement while participating in aerial flights during the period June 29 to October 20, 1950. On June 29, General MacArthur made a flight to Suwon, Korea, during which his aircraft was subject to effective interception by hostile air action. Another friendly aircraft in the area was attacked and destroyed by enemy air immediately prior to General MacArthur's landing, and the Suwon airstrip itself was bombed and strafed during the course of his visit. On July 27 he made a flight to Taegu, korea, during which his aircraft was again subject to hostile air interception and at which time the ground situation in the immediate area was most precarious. On September 29, General MacArthur made a flight to Kimpo, Korea, again under conditions presenting the threat of hostile air interception and while the Kimpo airport itself was subject to hostile ground fire. On October 20, he made a flight to the Sukchon-Sunchon area of Korea in order to observe and supervise the para-drop of the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team. During this entire operation his aircraft was subject to attack by enemy aircraft known to be based at Sinuiju . . . ." Following are some of the degrees conferred upon General MacArthur: D.Sc., Norwich University; D.Sc., Pennsylvania Military College, 1928; LL.D., University of Maryland, 1928; LL.D., Western Maryland College, 1929; LL.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1932; LL.D., University of Philippines, 1938; LL.D., University of Wisconsin, 1942; LL.D., University of Queensland, Australia, 1945. He was promoted to the grade of first lieutenant on April 23, 1904; to captain on February 27, 1911; to major on December 11, 1915; to colonel of Infantry, National Army, on August 5, 1917; to brigadier general, National Army, on June 26, 1918; to brigadier general, Regular Army, on January 20, 1920; to major general on January 17, 1925. He was appointed Chief of Staff, with the rank of general on November 21, 1930. On October 1, 1935, after serving nearly five years as Chief of Staff, he reverted to his permanent rank of major general. In 1936, President Quezon appointed him Field Marshal, Philippine Army. He retired from the U. S. Army with the rank of general on December 31, 1937, but was recalled to active duty as a major general on July 26, 1941, and was promoted to lieutenant general (temporary) on July 27, 1941. He was promoted to the grade of general (temporary) on December 18, 1941, and to General of the Army on December 18, 1944. Address: c/o Office of the Chief of Staff, Department of the Army, Washington 25, D. C. NIMITZ, CHESTER WILLIAM FLEET ADMIRAL, U. S. NAVY (5502) Born in Fredericksburg, Texas, on February 24, 1885. He attended Tivy High School, Kerrville, Texas, before his appointment to the United States Naval Academy from the Twelfth Congressional District of Texas in 1901. He was graduated with distinction, seventh in a class of 114, in January 1905. After graduation he joined the USS OHIO at San Francisco, California, and cruised in her to the Far East where she became flagship of the Asiatic Fleet. In September 1906 he was transferred to the USS BALTIMORE, and on January 31, 1907 he was commissioned ensign. His progression in rank thereafter was steady, attaining the flag rank of rear admiral on June 23, 1938. During the remainder of his stay on the Asiatic Station he consecutively commanded the USS PANAY and the USS DECATUR, and served in the USS DENVER. Returning to the United States in the USS RANGER in December 1908, he reported the following month for instruction in the First Submarine Flotilla. In May of that year he was given command of the flotilla, with additional duty in command of the USS PLUNGER. He was transferred to command of the USS SNAPPER when that submarine was commissioned on February 2, 1910. On November 18, 1910 he assumed command of the USS NARWHAL, and from October 10, 1911 he had additional duty as Commander, third Submarine Division, Atlantic Torpedo Fleet. He assumed command of the USS SKIPJACK on February 14, 1912. On March 20, 1912 he rescued a man from drowning
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