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Three things are necessary to the successful termination of a war. First, the destruction of the hostile armed forces; second, the destruction of the hostile power to make war; and, third, the destruction of the morale of the hostile population so that the war will not be renewed at an early date. None of these measures are possible of accomplishment by a passive defensive alone. The offensive must be assumed and maintained until a successful conclusion of the war is obtained. If this is not done and the power of initiative and offense is handed to the enemy, defeat will certainly be the result. Before the European War of 1914-18 military power was reckoned in two terms only; those of land power and sea power. The theatre of operations or that part of the earth's surface to which the hostile land or sea forces were capable of engaging in combat, was restricted to an ocean or part of it, or, on the land, to a single frontier or one or more contiguous frontiers. The field of operations or the areas in which those land or sea forces came into hostile contact, consisted -10-
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