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The Polytechnic Review
Motion, Power, Inertia, Energy.
By John Wise, Aeronaut.
In taking up a theme it is important that it have the right name. In that we should be governed by acknowledged authority; Webster is our guide. He defines motion as "The act or process of changing place." That does very well for visual definition.
Power: "Ability to act, regarded as latent or inherent." Also comprehensive.
Inertia: "That property of matter which tends to rest, or to motion." Good, but too metaphysical.
Energy: "The great energies of nature are known to us only by their effects."
For this definition Webster accepts Paley's idea, and the latter is a good authority.
In this article I prefer the term energy as the word expressive of that which we know only by its manifestation, whether in animal and vegetable life, or in the more stupendous movements of astronomical bodies. Of energy per se we know nothing, because it is invisible to our eyes, imponderable to our sense of weight, and incalculable as to its extent in our mathematics, as truly so as are infinity and eternity. We have, however, a measure of value as to its translation. We cannot make it, but we can evolve it from its occlusion, and when so evolved, its value of mechanical uses may be scientifically estimated. In that comes an extensive field of research for the engineer and mechanician. In estimating its heat-power, as derived through the agency of steam in the most improved steam engines, in their various mechanical and physical uses, and finding that we profitably utilize only from five to six per cent. of the evolved energy, it leaves us a margin of research of over ninety per cent., and room for a reasonable economy of forty to fifty per cent., making a fair allowance for the necessity of getting rid of the nitrogen in the process of combustion, as at present understood. When we come to know more about combustion we shall be able able to do better. Besides combustion, we have other resources of energy, more direct, in the power of the wind and the flowing of water. In these we translate it to machinery with the loss, only of friction. In this the the scientific mechanic aims at the maximum force to be derived in the minimum amount of friction necessary in the transfer from the water or wind to the working shaft of the mill. 
When we go into a comparative estimate of the energy derived from animal power as per fuel consumed- the peck of oats in the horse, and the pound of bread in the man-we find a great advantage on the side of the animal combustion; and when we draw a comparison of wind and water energy as used in its transfer by the wind and water wheel to the working tools, with that of planetary energy as manifested in the movement of these ponderous bodies around their centres in the push and pull energy of their primary, we become almost confounded in their apparent easy movement and little friction in the latter-even admitting the "music of the spheres" in their abrasion of the universal ether of space.
It is impossible to conceive how planets could be moved in their orbits round their primaries in a perfectly circular orbit by a mere attractive and repulsive force, or more plainly said, by a pull and push energy. Kepler's law on that leads us to a profound study, or should lead us to a profound study, of its principle. With the ball at the end of the string fastened to our finger, we swing it around through space in the orbit of an ellipse, and in this, as in the case of the planet, the string as radius vector, passes over equal areas of space in equal portions of time-the ball going faster in the pull, and slower as the pull is relaxed. This is a mode of motion not as much used in mechanics, and probably because we do not understand it as well as the simple crank motion. We are not certain that the crank motion in the translation of energy is the most economical and the best, although it superseded the eccentric in the earliest uses of the steam engine. The ellipsoid motion has the compensating principle of preservation against centrifugal explosion-the circular has not. I know the crank philosophers will join in general chorus against this assumption; but I trust they will not forget that there are more things in heaven and earth than our philosophies have ever dreamed of.
Natural law, natural motion, natural energy and that indispensable necessity of compensation in forces, teaches us that nature is the surest guide to follow in the pursuit of any and all knowledge.
Under our present system of the application of energy as evolved by combustion we squander too much of it in its translation from its natural recesses to the tool of the workshop, in the too cumbrous intervention of driving-wheels, frictional gearing and crank action.The simplest form of pendulum action will yet supersede the dead-centre crank action.
Although energy in itself is an occult thing, we know that it manifests itself in no no enigmatical way. It is semper idem. It never deviates from its static or dynamic laws. When released from its atomic cohesion it moves in the direction of least resistance, and diffuses gradually into space when not harnessed into subjection to be utilized in the fabrication of art work. That which is manipulated into work becomes there occluded until time and decay liberate it. The energy of the twenty-five pound of oats, as liberated through the instrumentality of the horse, does a greater amount of work than it can be made to do by burning the same quantity of oats under the steam boiler; and it does so because nature has appointed better means for its translation in the integuments of the horse's levers and fulcrums, than the mechanic does in his. The horse does not utilize it near so much as some of the insect animals.
He that studies the attributes of energy, under its natural manifestations, and traces it up from its static to its dynamic forms, will never be deluded to the pursuit of "perpetual motion." It can be evolved only by breaking up and disintegrating matter by combustion in some form or other. The wood and the coal that are burned to-day[[today]] to give us mechanical power will, in the course of time and the revolution of matter, become wood and coal again. The synchronism and equilibrium of nature is but slightly jarred by the shocks of volcanic action of the fires that we kindle in our mutable affairs. There is never more , nor less, of energy in the universe. If our world were to burn up, root and branch, to-morrow[[tomorrow]], it would be as a drop in the bucket, as compared to the universal cosmogony.
The various forms through which energy manifests itself may be summed up as a product of nature-the living law of the universe. Its phenomenal character, as manifested in earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and electrical explosions, which seem to us as catastrophic, are, without doubt, co-ordinate and normally incidental to the order of nature.
In the case of electrical explosions, in what we term thunder-bolts, I find, from observation and examination of forty years, that its action is ever comfortable to the law of projectile force. The phenomena attending these exhibitions of electrical discharges in their effects upon telegraph wires, lightning-rods, luminosity of points, etc., are nothing more than the less perceptible phenomena attendant upon artificial explosions of small magnitudes. The thunder-bolt moves in the direction of least resistance, and its force is ever in its axial line of projection. That a lightning-rod neutralizes hat force to an appreciable extent is a fallacy as palpable as is that that blue glass effect will grow a calf into a full-grown bull in twenty-four hours. Blue glass acts as a modified screen, nothing more. The lightning-rod not quite so efficiently.
Energy-power, if you please, may be inductively traced in the case of thunder-bolt phenomena in this way. We know that vaporization of water goes on at the expense of heat. Sun heat is constantly at that work, lifting water up into the atmosphere and holding it there in its invisible grasp, until a countervailing action releases it. Heat always finds its antagonist in cold; hence, any opposing stream of cold coming in contact with he warmer, water-charged air, releases the water-holding energy, when obedient to its law, it flies to more congenial matter not super-saturated with energy. Sometimes it goes for an exhausted cloud, at other times for the earth; and it will fly to the earth in a line of least resistance in despite of the lightning-rod that crosses its path. Scores of observations and strict examinations of cases of lightning strokes have revealed these facts to my scrutiny.
[[new article]]
results of the vote on the first article was announced a general rush was made to get out of the chamber, and such confusion was created as to prevent for some minutes the continuance of business. Prior to this time the most intense interest was manifested and excellent order was maintained but not until a second threat had been made by the Vice President that the spectators would be immediately ejected if any demonstrations of applause or disapproval should be indulged again. The entire performance occupied about two and one-half hours, after which the Court of Impeachment adjourned without day, and the Senate settled down to the consideration of legislative business.
The Court of Impeachment
Regular Press Report of the Final Proceedings-The "One-Minute" Explanations of the Senatorial Jurors.
WASHINGTON, August 1.- The Senate at 12 o'clock resumed the consideration of the articles of impeachment against W.W. Belknap, and pursuant to the order of yesterday proceeded to vote thereon. The respondent was not present to-day[[today]], but was represented by Mr. Carpenter, of his counsel.
The presiding officer directed the Secretary to call the names of the Senators in alphabetical order, and that each Senator rise in his place as his name should be called and respond "guilty" or "not guilty" to the question of the presiding officer.
The first article of impeachment, charging the accused with promising Marsh to appoint him post-trader at Fort Sill, and subsequently, at the request of Marsh, appointing John J Evans to the position, and receiving from Marsh $1,500 therefor[[therefore]] on the 2d[[Second]] of November, 1870, was read. The roll was then called, when thirty-five Senators voted guilty and twenty-five not guilty, as follows:
Those who voted guilty were Messrs. Bayard, Booth, Cameron(Pa.), Cockrell, Cooper, Davis, Dawes, Dennis, Edmunds, Gordon, Hamilton, Harvey, Hitchcock, Kelly, Kernan, Key, McCreery, McDonald, Merrimon, Mitchell, Morrill, Norwood, Oglesby, Randolph, Ransom, Robertson, Sargent, Saulsbury, Sherman, Stevenson, Thurman, Wadleigh, Wallace, Whyte and Withers. Total, 35.
Those who voted not guilty were Allison, Anthony, Boutwell, Bruce, Cameron(Wis.)Christiancy, Conkling, Conover, Cragin, Dorsey, Eaton, Ferry, Frelinghuysen, Hamlin, Howe, Ingalls, Jones(Nev.), Logan, McMillan, Paddock, Patterson, Spencer, West, Windom, and Wright-25.
The other four articles argued the respondent with having accepted at various times sums of money from Marsh in consideration for continuing Evans at the post, and having a corrupt agreement with Marshall by which he basely prostituted his high office, etc.
Upon the second,third and fourth articles thirty six senators voted guilty and twenty-five not guilty Mr. Maxey(Texas) having come in and voted guilty after the first roll-call. Upon the fifth article thirty seven Senators voted guilty and twenty-five not guilty, Mr. Morton who had then detained on account of a severe fall which happened to him this morning, having voted guilty on the ;last roll call. As each vote was announced the presiding officer(Mr. Ferry) stated that two-thirds of the Senate not having voted to sustain the article the respondent was acquitted on that charge, and after the announcement on that charge, and after the respondent was acquitted on that vote he directed that a judgement of acquittal be entered, in accordance with the twenty-second rule for the government of impeachment trials.
During the roll call Senators explained their votes
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