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454        Flying                December,1916

rapidly. Knowing that he had broken the cross-country non-stop flight and realizing that he might have to come down in some uninhabited place, he decided to land. Swinging back, he dropped from about 6,000 feet and landed at the Circus Grounds, where he had flown several years before. His landing was perfect. This is probably one of the most remarkable features of the flight and showed that cross-country flying by a pilot who keeps his head, is more safe than cross-country motoring. 
     Carlstrom landed at 11.27, and immediately made the repairs necessary as best he could. His account of the incident, telephoned to The New York Times from Hammondsport, in the evening, was this: 
     "I made an easy landing and jumped out to examine machine. I found that the nut holding the gasolene tank in connection with the carburetor had worked loose and gas was flowing out from this leak. It wasn't much of an accident to hold up a flight from Chicago to New York but it held it up all right. 
     "Fixing the motor was a cinch. It just needed a turn of the wrench to take up on that loose nut and then the machine was as good as ever. I can't imagine how it ever came to go wrong. It's the first time I ever had an accident of this kind. Of course I found the trouble at once for all I had to do was to trace the leaking gasolene to its source, but it was some time before I was ready to start out again. 
     "Then I had to crank that motor single-handed. I got some of the crowd to hold the machine and I got a man that knew something about automobiles to throw the switch on and off as I cranked. But even at that it took me a lot of time."
     The telephone observers chronicled every move made by Carlstrom while in Erie. They told that he bought fifty gallons of gasolene of 68 per cent specific gravity and of the difficulty in starting. They also reported that more than 5,000 persons had gathered at the Circus Grounds and as many more were hurrying to the scene in every vehicle obtainable. The aeroplane was guarded by the police reserves, who formed a cordon about it. These were called out by "Local Manager Young of the Bell Telephone Company." In addition the fact that Carlstrom had telephoned to Elmer Davis of The New York Times and to Charles B. Kirkham of the Curtiss Company, in Chicago, asking for instructions, was also faithfully 'phoned to The Times office at the very time the aviator was telephoning. 
     2.35--Carlstrom off. Headed due east. 
     Following this, there was silence for nineteen minutes, during which Carlstrom gaind about 6,000 feet, and then at 

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2.53 P. M., he was reported as passing by Sherman, New York. Reports then came thick and fast from New York points, and it was seen that Carlstrom was heading for Hammondsport.
     Carlstrom, however, did not swing over Elmira and at 4.24 he was reported as landing at Hammondsport. After this the report said, "Man started out in automobile to get Carlstrom. Direct wire from Hammondsport to The Times being held open."
     They were as follows: 
     6.02--Hammondsport reports that Carlstrom will start as soon as it is light enough to fly.
     6.06--Hammondsport reports all ready for flight.
     6.08 1/2--Carlstrom preparing to start. Telephone overserver on top of telephone pole where he can see machine start. 
     6.14--Just daylight at Hammondsport. 
     6.16--Light breeze from southwest at Hammondsport. 
     6.17--Not yet stared engine. 
     6.19--Five persons at grounds to see Carlstrom start. 
     6.22--Carlstrom started motor. 
     6.24--Hammondsport telephone office reports hearing noise of motor about one mile away. 
     6.30--Carlstrom turning machine so as to be in proper position for start.
     6.35--Carlstrom started. 
     6.36--Carlstrom 300 feet up and headed south. 
     6.36 1/2--Carlstrom about two miles away from field. 
     6.38--Still in sight and rapidly climbing. 
     6.39--Carlstrom out of sight of Hammondsport aviation field. 
     Then came the breaking of the speed record. Point after point reported the passage of the aeroplane and it was soon realized that Carlstrom was making at least 134 miles an hour. The night before Carlstrom had predicted that he would make the 315 miles in about three hours--instead, he made it in two hours and twenty-one minutes. 
     More than half an hour ahead of his time schedule, he swung over the Hudson near Fort Lee, N. J., and shot South over Hew York City, landing at Governors Island at exactly 8.56 A. M., according to the telephone observer who was waiting at the instrument there. 
     The final bulletin, marking the ending of the great flight came at 9.09. This said, "Carlstrom recieving congratulations of General Wood. Delivered [[[Italics]The Times]] mail. After which posed for six photographers and moving picture man."
     The flight officially ended when Augustus Post of the Aero Club of America, dropped his timer's flag. 
A HUNDRED AND TWENTY pounds of pluck called Ruth Law glided her little old 100 horsepower "pusher" aeroplane down on a swift wind out of a mixture of fog and Jersey smoke on the morning of November 21 and landed Governor's Island, winner of the American non-stop cross-country aviation record, and breaker of all world's records for women fliers. 
     Uncle Sam's band down on the island was playing its best tune, and the sun peeped out to glint a thousand welcomes from the rifles and swords of the garrison on parade, as the girl made a graceful turn and landed on the field where Major General Leonard Wood and the Aero Club or America authorities were waiting to shake her hand. As his aides helped her from the seat the General said:
     "Little girl, you beat them all!"
     Miss Law had completed the last leg of her Chicago-New York flight, having come from Binghamton where she had landed the day before after setting a new American cross-country record by flying from Chicago to Hornell, N. Y., a distance of 590 miles, and then 90 miles more to Binghamton, where she spent the night. 
     She left Binghamton at 7:23 A. M., and landed on Governor's Island at 9:37:35, official time. It's a matter of about 150 miles in air line from Binghamton to New York, but Miss Law flew 204 miles in making trip, according to her speedometer. Because of the fog she found it impossible exactly to follow her course. She made the 884 miles from Chicago in 8 hours 35 minutes and 35 seconds. 
     She left Chicago on Sunday morning at 8:25 A. M., Eastern time. Cheered by the people who had gathered at Grant Park. Her aeroplane, being loaded to its fullest capacity, climbed sluggishly and battled with the varying wind currents which came across and over the buildings on the lake front. There was at the time a southwest wind of about twenty-six miles an hour, which soon died out, and there was almost on wind thereafter. 
     She had mapped her course and had her chart mounted

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on rollers in a case, the case being strapped to her belt and to the guard of her seat. She had gone over the route with Lieutenant J. A. McAlser, of the Hydrographic Survey Office of Chicago, and had then traced the route herself on a chart, noting on the chart the compass directions she summarized on the cuff of her gauntlet. These notations read: Gary, 227 miles, S 88 degrees E.; Port Clinton, 21 miles, S. 69 degrees E.; Olean, 44 miles, N. 72 degrees E.; Hornell, 48 miles, S. 60 degrees E.; Elmira, 45 miles, S 81 degrees E.; Port Jervis, 33 miles, S. 50 degrees E.; Suffern, 32 miles, South to New York. 
     Following her directions, she passed Cleveland flying at a height of about 6,000 feet, and went on and passed Erie at a height of 3,00 feet. She soon passed Olean and flew to Hornell, where she landed at 2:10 P. M., having covered the distance of 590 miles breaking the American cross-country non-stop record made by Victor Carlstrom on November 2, bettering Victor Carlstrom's non-stop distance record from Chicago to Erie by 138 miles. 
     After taking on gasoline she started out again, leaving Hornell at 3:24 P. M., and flew to Binghamton, where she arrived at 4:20 and spent the night. 
     She started from Binghamton the following morning at 7:23. What happened after is told in her own words, as follows:
     Seated away out on the nose of her little machine, she looked in her aviation togs of wool and leather for all the world like a young Eskimo in his Sunday clothes. She was so benumbed with cold that she didn't more for a moment or two after her aeroplane had stopped. Bundled up as she was, what one noticed were her blue eyes looking through the goggles. Unprotected by shield or car body, she had flown perched out in the air and the dampness had penetrated even her heavy clothing. 
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