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NOMENCLATURE FOR AERONAUTICS 11 [Column 1] airship to which the longitudinal girders are attached and which supports the bow mooring spindle. (See fig. 6.) capacity - The volume of the gas cell or cells of an aerostat. nominal gas capacity - The volume of the gas cell or cells of an aerostat under certain definite conditions of pressure and inflation. cap-strip - A continuous member on the outer edge of a wing rib. captive balloon - See BALLOON, CAPTIVE. car - A structure in, or suspended from, the hull or envelop of an airship for carrying crew, engineers, passengers, etc. (See figs. 3 and 4.) side car - A car suspended off the center line of an airship; also called "wing car." car, subcloud - An observation car which may be lowered from an airship to a position below the clouds. card compass - See COMPASS, CARD. catapult - A device by which an airplane can be launched at flying speed. cat walk - A narrow footway along the keel of a rigid airship. ceiling - Height of the lower level of a bank of clouds above the ground. ceiling: absolute ceiling - The maximum heigh above sea level as which a given airplane would be able to maintain horizontal flight under standard air conditions. ballonet ceiling - The altitude from which a pressure airship with empty ballonets can return to sea level without loss of operating pressure. service ceiling - The height above sea level, under standard air conditions, at which a given airplane is unable to climb faster than a small specific rate (100 feet per minute in the United States and England). This specified rate may differ in different countries. static ceiling - The altitude in standard atmosphere, at which an aerostat is in static equilibrium after removal of all dischargeable weight. ceiling balloon - See BALLOON, CEILING ceiling-height indicator - A device the measures the height from the horizontal to the illuminated spot produced by a ceiling projector as seen from a fixed position. ceiling projector - A projector that produced an illuminated region on the under side of a cloud for the purpose of determining the height of the part of the cloud above the indicator. cell, gas - In an airship, one of the bags containing the aerostatic gas. (See figs. 4 and 6.) cellule (or cell) - In an airplane, the entire structure of the wings and wing trussing of the whole airplane on one side of the fuselage, or between fuselages or nacelles, where there are more than one. [Column 2] center, aerodynamic - See AERODYNAMIC CENTER, WING SECTION. center, elastic (stress analysis) - A point within the wing section at which the application of a single concentrated load will cause the wing to deflect without rotation and, conversely, a point within the wing section about which rotation occurs when the wing is subjected to rotational deflection. center of buoyancy - See BUOYANCY, CENTER OF. center of pressure of an airfoil - The point in the chord of an airfoil, prolonged if necessary, which is at the intersection of the chord and the line of action of the resultant air force. center-of-pressure coefficient - The ration of the distance of the center of pressure from the leading edge to the chord length. center section - The central panel of a wing; in the case of a continuous wing or any wing having no central panel, the limits of the center section are arbitrarily defined by the location of points of attachment to the cabana struts or fuselage. centrifugal-type supercharger - See SUPERCHARGER, CENTRIFUGAL-TYPE. chandelle - An abrupt climbing turn to approximately a stall in which the momentum of the airplane is used to obtain a higher rate of climb than would be possible in unaccelerated flight. The purpose of this maneuver is to gain altitude at the same time that the direction of flight is changed (fig. 8.) chine - The intersection of the bottom with the sides or deck of a seaplane float. chord - An arbitrary datum line from which the ordinates and angles of an airfoil are measured. It is usually the straight line tangent to the lower surface at two points, the straight line joining the ends of the mean line, or the straight line between the leading and trailing edges. (See figs. 2 and 5.) chord, mean aerodynamic - The chord of an imaginary airfoil which would have force vectors throughout the flight range identical with those of actual wing or wings. chord, mean, of a wing - The quotient obtained by dividing the wing area by the span. chord direction (stress analysis) - A force, or component, in the chord direction; i.e., parallel to the intersection of the plan of the internal wing truss with the plane of symmetry of the airplane (cf. beam, drag, lift, and side forces). chord length - The length of the projection of the airfoil profile on its chord.
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