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12  REPORT NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

cockpit-An open space in an airplane for the accommodation of pilots or passengers. When completely enclosed, such a space is usually called a cabin. (See fig. 5.)

column, control-See CONTROL COLUMN

compass:

card (or card magnetic) compass- A magnetic compass in whish the magnets are attached to a pivoted card on which the directions are marked.

earth-inductor (or induction) compass- A compass the indications of which depend on the current generated in a coil revolving in the earth's magnetic field.

sun compass-A compass in which the direction of the sun is utilized instead of the direction of the magnetic north or south pole.

compression-ignition engine-See ENGINE, COMPRESSION-IGNITION.

compression ratio-The ratio of the volume of the gas in an engine cylinder at the beginning of the compression stroke to its volume at the end of the stroke.

cone:

axial cone-(1) The cone-shaped fabric fitting, in the end of a gas cell of a rigid airship, which provides a gas-tight connection of the cell to the axial cable and yet permits the cell some degree of freedom in its movements. (2) A special form of conical sleeve.

danger cone-A pennant or a hollow cone of light cloth on the wire cable of a captive balloon to warn aircraft of its presence.

entrance cone- That portion of a wind tunnel from which the air flows to the experiment chamber. (See fig. 7.)

exit cone- That portion of a wind tunnel into which the air flows from the experiment chamber. (See fig. 7.)

mooring cone- The grooved conical member at the extreme bow of an airship which engages with a hollow cone at the top of the mooring mast and provides the coupling between the airship and the mooring mast. (See fig. 6.)

wind cone- A tapered fabric sleeve pivoted on a standard to indicate the wind direction.

coning angle- See ANGLE, CONING.

control cable- See CABLE, CONTROL.

control column- A level having a rotatable wheel mounted at its upper end for operating the longitudinal and lateral control surfaces of an airplane. This type of control is called "wheel control."

control, servo- A control devised to reinforce the pilot's effort by an aerodynamic or mechanical relay.

controllability- The quality of an aircraft that determines the ease of operating its controls and/or the effectiveness of displacement of the controls in producing change in its attitude in flight.
 
controllable propeller-See PROPELLER, CONTROLLABLE 

controls-A general term applied to the means provided to enable the pilot to control the speed, direction of flight, attitude, power, etc. of an aircraft.

control stick- The vertical level by means of which the longitudinal and lateral control surfaces of an airplane are operated. The elevator is operated by a fore-and-aft movement of the stick; the ailerons, by a side-to-side movement. (see fig. 5.) 

control surface-A moveable airfoil designed to be rotated or otherwise moved by the pilot in order to change the attitude of the aircraft. 

control-surface area, trailing-See AREA, MEASUREMENT OF.

cord, rip- See RIP CORD.

course light - See LIGHT, COURSE.

cove- The line of intersection between two surfaces of a hull, the vertex of the angle of intersection pointing inward.

cowling- A removeable covering.

cockpit cowling- A metal or plywood cowling place around a cockpit.

engine cowling- A removable covering placed around all or part of an airplane engine.

N.A.C.A. cowling- A cowling enclosing a radial air-cooled engine, consisting of a hood, or ring, and a portion of the body behind the engine so arranged that the cooling air smoothly enters the hood at the front and leave through a smooth annular slot between the body and the rear of the hood; the whole forming a relatively low-drag body with a passage through a portion of it for the cooling air.

cowling, ring- See RING COWLING.

cradle:

building cradle- A support provided for the frame of a rigid airship or the keep of a semi-rigid airship during construction.

docking cradle- A support for the car of an airship while it is being inflated in the shed; mostly used with rigid airships.

crew, landing (or ground)-A detail of men necessary for the landing and handling of an airship on the ground.

critical altitude- See ALTITUDE, CRITICAL.

critical angle of attack- See ANGLE OF ATTACK, CRITICAL.

cross-wind force- The component perpendicular to the lift and to the drag of the total air force on a body.

crowsfoot-(1) A system of diverging short ropes for distributing the pull of a single rope. (2) An arrangement in which the strands of a cord are opened out so that they can be effectively cemented to a fabric surface.

cyclogiro- A type of rotor plane whose support in the air is normally derived from airfoils mechanically rotated about an axis perpendicular to the plan of symmetry of the aircraft, the angle of attack of the 

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