This transcription has been completed. Contact us with corrections.
NOMENCLATURE FOR AERONAUTICS 19 [Column 1] Load: basic load (stress analysis)- The load on a structural member or part in any condition static equilibrium of an airplane. When a specific basic load is meant, the particular condition of equilibrium must be indicated in the context. design load (stress analysis) - A specified load below which a structural member or part should not fail. It is the probable maximum applied load multiplied by the factor of safety. Also, in many cases, an appropriate basic load multiplied by a deign load factor. full load - Weight empty plus useful load; also called gross weight. normal load (stress analysis) - The load on that part of a wing assumed to be unaffected by tip losses or similar corrections. In any given case, it may be a basic, design, gross, net, or ultimate load, depending on the context. pay load - That part of the useful load from which revenue is derived, viz, passengers and fright. ultimate load (stress analysis) - The load that causes destructive failure in a member during a strength test, or the load that, according to computations, should cause destructive failure in the member. useful load - The crew and passengers, oil and fuel, ballast other than emergency, ordnance, and portable equipment. load factor (stress analysis) - The ratio of two loads (the second being a basic load) that have the same relative distribution. The first load may be the load applied during some special maneuver, the maximum probably load on the airplane or part, the design load, or the ultimate load. Whenever a load factor is mentioned, the context should indicate clearly what load is being compared with the basic load. If the context does not so indicate, the load factor is usually the ratio of the design load to the weight of the airplane. loading: power loading - The gross weight of an airplane divided by the rated horsepower of the engine computed for air of standard density, unless otherwise stated. span loading - The ration of the weight of an airplane to its equivalent monoplane span. unsymmetrical loading (stress analysis) - A design loading condition for the wings and connecting members representing the conditions as in a roll. wing loading - The gross weight of an airplane dividing by the wing area. longeron - A principal longitudinal member of the framing an airplane fuselage or nacelle, usually continuous across a number of points of suppler. (See fig. 5.) [Column 2] longitudinal: intermediate longitudinal - A light longitudinal girder between main longitudinal of a rigid airship, primarily intended for support of the outer cover. main longitudinal - A main longitudinal strength member of a rigid airship, which connects the various transverse frames. (See fig. 6.) loop - A maneuver executed in such a manner that the airplane follows a closed curve approximately in a vertical plane. inverted normal loop - A loop starting from inverted flight and passing successively through a dive, normal flight, climb, and back to inverted flight. inverted outside loop - An outside loop started from inverted flight and passing successively through a climb, normal flight, dive, and back to inverted flight. normal loop - A loop starting from normal flight and passing successively through a climb, inverted flight, dive, and back to normal flight. (See fig. 8.) outside loop - A loop starting from normal flight and passing successively through a dive, inverted flight, climb, and back to normal flight, the pilot being on the outside of the flight path. loop, ground - See GROUND LOOP. loop, radio - A specified number of turns of wire located in the wings or wound around the fuselage of an airplane. Small portable loops on a rectangular frame are also used. loop, safety - A loop formed in a rip cord of an aerostat and attached to a securing patch by a breakable cord or a spring clip. loop, sandbag - A system of cordage loops on the envelope of a balloon for suspending sandbags. magneto, booster - An auxiliary magneto used for starting. maneuver - (a) To operate an aircraft in a skillful manner, so as to cause it to perform evolutions out of the ordinary. (b) To perform tactical or acrobatic evolutions with aircraft. maneuverability - That quality in an aircraft which determines the rate at which its altitude and direction of flight can be changed. maneuvering valve - See VALVE, MANEUVERING. manhole, appendix - A short appendix of large diameter used for access to the interior of the envelope of an aerostat. manometer pressure (aerostat) - See PRESSURE, MANOMETER. margin of safety (stress analysis) - The difference between the ultimate load and any applied load. marker, boundary - A pained cone, solid circle, disloyalties, or other device used to mark the boundary of the available landing area on an airport or landing field.