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NOMENCLATURE FOR AERONAUTICS 23 radio loop-See LOOP, RADIO. radio mast-A mast attached to an aircraft which serves as part of the radio-antenna structure. rail, docking-A rail or guide, installed on the landing field and extending into the shed, which affords a means for resisting the lateral pull of an airship's docking or handling lines. rake, propeller-See PROPELLER RAKE. ram-The combination of tubes and springs mounted in gimbals at the top of a mooring mast to ease the shock when the moor is made. ramming-The effect obtained when the air intake to the engine is placed in the slipstream in such a manner as to take advantage of the difference in velocity of this air intake and the slipstream, in order to increase the pressure in the induction system. range, maximum-The maximum distance a given aircraft can cover under given conditions, by flying at the economical speed and altitude at all stages of the flight. range at maximum speed-The maximum distance a given aircraft can fly at full speed at the altitude for maximum speed under given conditions. rated horsepower of an engine-See HORSEPOWER OF AN ENGINE, RATED. rate-of-climb indicator-An instrument that indicates the rate of ascent or descent of an aircraft. recovery, water-See WATER RECOVERY. reference area-The area used in the equations defining the coefficient of the air force acting upon a body or the coefficients of the components of the air force. This area is logically or conveniently chosen in different manners for different types of bodies. regulator, fuel bypass-A device placed in the fuel line of a supercharged engine for regulating the fuel pressure in the carburetor float chamber so that it will be a fixed amount above the carburetor air pressure. relative efficiency of biplane wings (stress analysis)- The ratio of the normal load per square foot on the upper wing to that on the lower. relative wing-See WIND, RELATIVE. renversement-A maneuver consisting of a half roll and a half loop in the order named. resistance derivatives-See DERIVATIVES, RESISTANCE. retractable landing gear-See LANDING GEAR, RETRACTABLE. Reynolds Number-A nondimensional coefficient used as a measure of the dynamic scale of a flow. Its usual form is the fraction Vl/v in which V is the velocity of the fluid, l is a linear dimension of a body in the fluid, and v is the kinematic velocity of the fluid (cf. scale effect). rib, wing-See WING RIB. rig: (aerostat)-To attach and adjust the car, rudders, valves, controls, etc., of an airship, i.e., to erect. (airplane)-To assemble, adjust, and aline the parts of an airplane. rigger-One who rigs an aircraft. righting or restoring moment-A moment that tends to restore an aircraft to its previous attitude after any small rotational displacement. rigid airship-See AIRSHIP, RIGID. ring, concentration: airship-A ring to which several rigging lines are led from the envelope and from which one or more lines also lead to the car. free-balloon-A ring to which are attached the ropes suspending the basket and to which the net is also secured; sometimes called "load ring." ring, exhaust-collector-See EXHAUST-COLLECTOR RING. ring, cowling-A ring-shaped cowling placed around a radial air-cooled engine to reduce its drag and improve cooling. rip cord-(1) The rope running from the rip panel to the car or basket, the pulling of which tears off or rips the panel and causes immediate deflation of a balloon or a nonrigid airship. (See fig. 3.) (2) The Cord, together with the handle and fastening pins, which, when pulled, releases a parachute from its container. roach-A heavy jet or vertical sheet of water thrown above the water surface behind a seaplane float. roll-A maneuver in which a complete revolution about the longitudinal axis is made, the horizontal direction of flight being approximately maintained. aileron roll-A roll in which the motion is largely maintained by forces arising from the displacement of the aileron (fig. 8). outside roll-A roll executed while flying in the negative angle-of-attack range. snap roll-A roll executed by a quick movement of the controls, in which the motion is largely maintained by autorotational couples on the wings (fig. 8). roll-An angular displacement about an axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of an aircraft. rolling-Angular motion about the longitudinal axis (fig. 10). root, propeller-See PROPELLER ROOT. Roots-type supercharger-See SUPERCHARGER, ROOTS-TYPE. rotor-The complete rotating portion of a rotary wing system. rotor plane-A form of aircraft whose support in the air is chiefly derived from the vertical component of the force produced by rotating airfoils. rudder-A hinged or moveable auxiliary airfoil on an aircraft, the function of which is to impress a yawing moment on the aircraft. (See figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6.)