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278    THE CRISIS

deepest dye was a commanding figure in journalism. Today there are men of Negro blood in the national and state legislatures, representing citizens of any and all hues. One of the most important diplomatic representatives of Brazil would be called a Negro in law and a "nigger" by custom in the United States. In short, in every walk of life, from the highest and most useful callings to the humble and unproductive one of begging and the less honorable but less prevalent one of stealing, Brazilians are engaged, without let or hindrance, purely because of their own or their grandmothers' color. 

But withal white civilization is still supreme and is constantly increasing its power and influence, for it is supported by the national conscience of a people passionately devoted to the practise of liberty and justice within their own borders and among their fellow-men. Such a civilization must always endure, for it is only when Bethman Hollweg declares: "We'll knock Belgians on the head, and then talk to them about it afterward," that Waco becomes Verdun and white civilization commits suicide. 

The South American countries have had their Wacos and Verduns, and for this reason they are not anxious to pay more than they can help of the penalties for wrongs done unto them rather than by them. For four hundred years Europeans, Africans and American aborigines have toiled together, according to their girts, to make this continent what is is today. Out of this long experience has been evolved the attitude toward men and citizens of the various countries, which is thus expressed by Don Francisco García Calderón, former Minister of Bolivia to the United States, in an essay on Pan-Americanism, Past and Future: "The biological notion of race, that internal fatality as inexorable as destiny of old, which is revealed by the cranial line and the color of the skin, is dealing in prestige. Sociologists have given up discovering pure blood in confused nations, they do not recognize the hereditary pre-eminence, which used to be attributed to particular ethnic groups; they contest the summary opposition between Indo-Germanica and Semitic which explained, in the mind of ambitious historians, the development of the drama of peoples, their progress and decadence, the contrition of empire and philosophies, the mission of Orient and Occident. But we do not abandon the idea of race as the synthesis of the diverse elements of a definite civilization. Religion, art, language, lengthy inhabitation of the same territory, traction, more affinities which fix, through the centuries lasting cultures and unmistakable psychological characteristics." 

This idea of race as being synonymous with nations holds true in Brazil. Perhaps in the Great Republic of the North the times is not far distant when an American will be no less than an American, no matter what shape of his head or the color of his skin. And then, the you have no more Wacos, you need fear no Verduns. At least, you will have the satisfaction of knowing that none of the blood and treasure which you would generously spend for the redemption of Belgium is being paid in needless sacrifice for the slavery that maintain at home. 

A PRAYER
By ANNA M. HENDERSON 

[[image: Two open books perhaps bibles and four swastikas]]

DEAR God, I ask not that along my way 
The path be smoothed; nor to direct my tread
The trail be blazed, a chart before me spread, 
Nor that the dark too soon be turned to day.
The untried virtue, shrinking in dismay
From life's turmoil, its bitterness and dread., 
I cannot praise. Where strength and Men are bred
In dust and heat of conflict, let me stay; 
Teach me the Truth that triumphs over pain.
Grant that to me the sweat toil be sweet.
I ask no rich reward. I only crave 
A spirit singing to the lashing rain—
A lifted heart that never knows defeat. 
God help me to be strong! God make me brave!


Men of the Month

AN AMERICAN MISSIONARY.
CHARLES JACKSON RYDER, Corresponding Secretary of the American Missionary Association, was born in Oberlin, Ohio, on Christmas Day, 1848. He was educated at Oberlin, and married Sarah H. Tenney in 1876. During twenty-five years of service with the American Missionary Association, Mr. Ryder was intimately connected with the educational development of the colored people. He was a staunch advocate of their higher training and noted many of the best members of the race among his friends. 

A SOCIAL WORKER
MRS. JUDITH CARTER HORTON was born in Missouri in 1866. She was educated in the public schools of St. Louis and Oberlin, Ohio, graduating from Oberlin College in 1891. For seventeen years she taught in the public schools of Kansas and Oklahoma. She married D. G. Horton, Principal of the Colored High School of Guthrie, Okla. When he was refused admission to the Carnegie Public Library, Mrs. Horton began a movement for a colored library, which she established in 1908, and of which she is now librarian. She organized the first colored women's club in the state in 1904 and has been president of the State Federation for three terms, during which time the federation has secured a state training school Negro boys and first, with an appropriation of over $100,000. 

A CITY ATTORNEY.
CHARLES L. RICE was born in Illinois in 1873. He was educated in the public schools and became a lawyer, being admitted to the Bar in 1893 as the youngest applicant in a class of forty-one. He began practising in Mound City, and in 1895 was elected city attorney, serving in all eight years. He also served as Corporation Counsel in his own city and Pulaski.  Since 1906 he has been Master-in-Chancery in the Circuit Count of the County of Pulaski. The local paper says that his conduct of the office has been "very creditable, indeed. The courts, lawyers, and all parties having had dealings with him in his officials capacity speak in very complimentary terms of his promptness, courtesy, and efficiency in the conduct of his office."  No official in the county handles as much money as the Master-in-Chancery, except the Collector of Taxes. Mr. Rice is also local attorney of the Cairo and St. Louis Railway Company and other corporations. Finally, he is a member of the Board of Education, having been elected in 1913, and re-elected in 1916. He has a wife and two boys. Five years ago he erected a handsome residence for a home. 

A MERCHANT. 
THE late John Brown Bell was born in Georgia in 1858. He and his mother were sold in slavery away from his father when he was only six months old. They were brought to Texas. After only three and one-hand years schooling he was put to work in the grocery store. Later he bought the business, turned it over to his brother and began dealing in real estate. At his recent death he paid taxes on $100,000 worth of property Mr. Bell was an active civic worker, had a beautiful and hospitable home, and was well known throughout the state by both races. 

A CORPORATION COUNSEL.
LUCIUS SUMNER HICKS was born in Plymouth, N. C., thirty-four years ago. He is a graduate of the Boston Latin School, where he was captain in the cadet corps, and of the Boston University Law School. In March, 1917, he was appointed registrar of voters. Last December he was made Assistant Corporation Counsel by Mayor Curley at a salary of $2,200.

IN THE PHILLIPINES.
T. N. McKINNEY is a colored American who has gained considerable prominence in the Philippines. He is a native of San Antonio, Texas, where he was born in 1883. He entered the army and was discharged at Manila in 1902. Afterward he served on the police and civil service department and finally became proprietor of the Manila Commission House Company. Under his leadership the colored American colony won first prize in the carnival inaugural parade for three successive years. He has published a year book, organized the civic league and accumulated considerable real estate.

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