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August, 1931 U.S. AIR SERVICES 37

work has been properly done by factory-trained mechanics and where proper heat treatment has been applied where the severity of the bend has made this necessary. On the other hand, our experience indicates that early removal of nicks and dents in propeller blades and periodic inspection at shops where properly trained personnel are available, is very necessary.

IN passing, a word may be said in connection with propeller troubles which are not rightfully laid at the feet of a propeller manufacturer. When a new airplane is flight-tested it has been altogether too common practice to blame the propeller if smooth and efficient operation is not secured. In effect, the propeller, being the last element installed, must perform smoothly and efficiently no matter what errors have been made in the fundamental design of the airplane, the engine, or the engine mount, or the propeller is at fault. As the result of a long education effort, most operators are now realizing that what is called "propeller roughness" is more often a symptom of very deeply seated trouble in the motor or the airplane structure, rather than in the propeller itself. At our suggestion, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is addressing itself to this problem of "roughness" as being probably caused by a synchronization of the periods of vibration of the several major elements in the completed airplane. It should be fairly obvious that propeller makers would be only too happy to do anything, no matter how costly, that could be definitely and surely pointed out as insuring a "smooth" propeller under any and all conditions of application or operation.

IN conclusion, it should be stated that the present stabilized condition of propeller design is about to give way to really important propeller developments involving greatly increased efficiency and much lighter weights. There are a number of types of controllable pitch propellers, any one of which, if proven dependable in service, will increase efficiency sufficient to pay for their greater cost within a few hundred hours of operation. Forged magnesium and hollow steel blades will permit the general adoption of the large propellers required for geared motors, with their consequently increased cruising efficiency. When these blades are used in a controllable pitch propeller, we remove the last obstacle to the use of geared motors. When the blades of these propellers are turned to the low pitch position, the unfavorable take-off characteristics inherent to the use of geared engines can be changed into a marked improvement over the take-off obtained with direct-drive motors.

Fast and Patriotic Hungarians Conquer Atlantic
ALEXANDER MAGYAR and George Endres, Hungarian army reserve officers, landed their monoplane Justice for Hungary at Bicske, a town in the hills twenty miles west of Budapest, at 7:30 P.M. (1:30 P.M. Eastern Standard time) on July 16, having left Harbor Grace, Newfoundland, 26 hours and 12 minutes before. It was the first nonstop flight from North America to Hungary; also the first aerial ocean crossing for a political aim. The machine was a low-winged Lockheed, powered with the same type engine which carried Post and Gatty around the world, a Pratt and Whitney Wasp. Endres piloted, Magywar was the navigator. Both men are navigators and radio operators.
On a Great Circle course, the distance from Harbor Grace to Bicske is 3,239 miles. From New York, whence the flyers had set out, the Great Circle distance is about 4,300 miles. Endres and Magyar thus fell short of the nonstop air distance record of 4,909 miles from France to China set by Dieudonne Costes and Maurice Bellonte. The Hungarian flyers' Atlantic flight was the twelfth to date and the third for 1931, the others this year having been made by Otto Hellig and Holger Hoiriis, and Wiley Post and Harold Gatty.
On arrival at Budapest the flyers said that they believed they had accomplished their aim, which was to direct world attention to the injustice that Hungarians declare was done to their country in the World War settlement, notably by the Treaty of the Trianon.
IT was in Detroit's "Little Hungary" that Magyar first broached the idea of making the flight. He placed his plan before Franz Pattinger, editor of the Hungarian news. Financial backing was sought for more than a year until Lord Rothermere, British publisher, offered $10,000 to the first Americans to fly from North America to Budapest. Emil Szalay, a retired meat packer living in Flint, Mich., then put up sufficient money to finance the trip. Captain Endres, Hungary's leading flyer, was then brought to the country.
Mr. Szalay's father engaged in struggles for Hungarian freedom 73 years ago, so he mortgaged his plant and turned over to Endres $20,000 to help pay for the equipment. He was awaiting the flyers in Budapest.
The flight takes the mind off the world depression and the activities of bootleggers, and the imagination is stirred by the accuracy with which these fine flyers achieved their objective. Frequent messages as to their position were sent out by the flyers by radio.
Magyar is 32, Endres 34. They steered a straight course to the banks of the Danube and it is to be hoped that they will be equally successful in their political purposes.

Helen Moore Schroeder
HERE'S to the man-made birds of the
Long may they triumph, long may they
Here's to the thrill of sweeping wings,
To the rush of a motor that roars and
To the wind tossed clouds as they hurtle by;
To the speed and the power of flashing
To the earth beneath that blurs and fades.
Here's to the skill of well-trained hands
That harness the heavens with silver bands;
Here's to the courage that needs no words,
Here's to the flight of man-made birds.
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