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industries must be organized on the industrial basis of organization, that is, one industrial union for each industry and for all the workers of that industry. These Unions must be class-struggle Unions, energetic organization, must be carried on throughout each industry on the shop basis of organization, factory committees, shop delegates, pit committees (in the mines), action committees and strike committees. The setting up of these collaboration, against any cooperation with the bosses, against reformists like Kadalie and Ballinger, against all reformist meddlers. These committees should become real live militant organs of the works, fighting against the bosses for the improvement of the conditions of the workers.

Another task of the factory committees must be the organization of self-defence groups in order to guard the workers against the attacks of the bosses and their police. Self-defence corps often will have to guard meeting places, defend picketters, etc. Defence corps must have the closet cooperation of all the workers.

On this basis and fighting for the interests of all the workers regardless to race the Federation of Non-European Trade Unions must become a mass organization, functioning throughout the country, a real revolutionary trade union centre unifying all the workers of South Africa - Europeans, Coloureds, Indians, etc., for revolutionary struggle. It must fight for the following demands and conditions:

1. For the right of the workers to organize, for the complete freedom of trade unions, or the right to assembly.
2. For equal pay for equal work (Natives with Europeans) for me, women and youth.
3. For an increase in wages. (In mining there has not been an increase in 30 years.)
4. For a working day of not more than 8 hours for grown ups, 6 hours for youth. Introduction of 6 hour working day in dangerous work, like for example, mining.
5. For compulsory weekly rest days and annual holidays with full pay.
6. For insurance against unemployment, sickness, accident; for old age pension, etc., all to be paid for by the state.
7. For the complete abolition of all forced labour, contract labour, and systems for bondage.
8. For special demands and rights for the Portuguese Natives already imported to South Africa.
9. Away with the compound system.
10. Away with pass restrictions and curfew laws.
11. For abolition of all racial barriers, colour bars and caste systems.

In addition, there are a thousand and one other demands in South Africa for the improvement of the life of the workers such as providing of toilets, workers' inspection supervision, especially in all the mines where the danger to the life of the workers is great.

Other Tasks
The most important task of the trade union movement of South Africa is the development and training of native trade union leaders, who must be drawn up right out of the shops, factories and pits. The most militant; active, class-conscious workers must come forward to lead their fellow workers. Another task

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is the building of a trade union Press, issurance of leaflets and pamphlets in native languages and finally close contact must be established with the revolutionary International labour movement.

Agricultural Workers
The class-conscious workers in the cities and industries must help their brother agriculture workers on the plantations and farms, organize to fight, against serf and slave conditions, the forcing of the Natives off the farms with taxation, against compulsory labour, against spending their work time. Contact must also be made with the peasant toilers.

At this moment everything points to a heightening of the class struggle in South Africa. On the basis of the many grievances and the deplorable conditions of the workers, and the growing offensive of the bosses against the native workers. imminent class battles are ahead. A strike situation flaring up the whole of South Africa is in store for the near future. Careful attention must be given therefore to strike tactics, the preparation and leadership of strikes. (See "Study Corner" this issue.)

The South African proletariat must not forget and must keep it ever before them that the full and complete betterment of their conditions, that full and complete protection of the interests of all the workers, that the achievement of self-determination for the natives and the setting up of a Native Republic for the organization of the country on a Socialist Basis, cannot be had before British Imperialist supremacy and white bourgeois rule is destroyed. You must build powerful revolutionary trade unions. You must accept the guidance and leadership of the Communist Party, the only party of the working class and oppressed millions of South Africa.

THE REVOLUTIONARY FORCES OF AFRICA*
By Thomas Ring.

It is important to lay down a definite line of tactics in order to define the role of the black races in Africa. The First International Conference of Negro Workers in July 1930, with sufficient clearness pointed out the difference between the Negro problems of the United States of America and those of Africa, at the same time advocating the necessity of applying different methods for the bringing out of respective slogans. It would be a serious mistake to regard the Negro problem in Africa from the point of view of the Negro question in the United States or in the West Indies. But the different situation in Africa itself, on account of the different economic levels and local conditions, was not made sufficiently clear by the conference. 

Africa is an object of exploitation for the inexhaustible supply of raw materials and markets. The various colonial administrations are applying various

[[footnote]]* This article by comrade Ring was much longer, dealing with the whole continent of Africa, but because of a lack of space and also the fact that for the moment we are concerned primarily with what is called "black Africa", we have been compelled to omit the part of the article which deals with North Africa. We shall perhaps be able to print the rest in some future issue. It is translated from the German -Editor.

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