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fashion. It was during the World War, in 1915, that japan presented to China her infamous Twenty-one Demands which, had they been accepted by China, would have meant the end of her independence and her conversion into a Japanese colony. Japan struck her next blow in 1931, seizing Manchuria, and carrying her aggression by continuous stages during the following years to all North China. The insolence of Japan increased as she tasted blood. She began to claim jurisdiction over the whole national Chinese government and its policies. Japan conquered Manchuria and established the puppet state of Manchukuo, at the same time carrying through a military attack upon Shanghai. In 1933, these conquests were extended to Jehol. During 1933-36, Japan extended her conquests to Inner Mongolia, setting up puppet states under Japanese control. Drunk with the successes of all these raids, Japan today proceeds directly against the central government of China, aiming at the complete subjugation of all China to the Japanese imperialist yoke. JAPANESE "LAW AND ORDER" IN MANCHURIA What is the fate of the peoples in these territories conquered by the Japanese militarists? How does Japan carry out her self-ordained mission of "liberator" of the Asiatic peoples? We have before us the record of six years of Japanese military rule in Manchuria. The conquerors have completely taken over the governmental and economic life of the country. The Japanese, in order to maintain their rule against a rebellious population, find it necessary to keep a permanent Japanese army of occupation, numbering 130,000 men, on Manchurian soil. But even under the protection of this mighty armed force they feel themselves insecure, and every Japanese official, merchant, and colonist is armed to the teeth. The soil of Manchuria is one of the richest in the world, yet the peasants are completely ruined. Their cultivated land has 8 been confiscated, and they have been compelled to break virgin soil. Forced labor has been instituted. The Manchurian peasants, like the natives of most of the African colonies, are forced to build roads and railways without pay. As the result of confiscation of their land, and the heavy burden of taxes levied upon them, thousands of peasants have been forced off the land to search for work in the cities. One-third of the land is now lying untilled. The industrial workers are no better off. They are paid no more than a quarter the wages Japanese workers receive (which are low enough). While a Japanese worker gets thirty cents an hour, the Manchurian worker is paid seven cents. All Manchurian universities were closed when the Japanese occupied the country. Special permission from Japanese-controlled Manchukuan authorities is necessary in order to pursue university studies. The number of secondary schools has been reduced. Students are forced to learn Japanese, and study in that language. According to the journal Kweng Min of November, 1936, a total of 300 children out of the entire population of Manchuria (30,000,000) were admitted to secondary schools in 1936. JAPAN "LIBERATES" THE KOREANS The most damning indictment of Japanese imperialism is the rape and subjugation of the Korean people. Since the time of its annexation by Japan in 1910, Korea has been governed by a series of notorious generals--the present one being the fascist-jingoist, General Jiro Minami. Under Japanese rule, the ancient culture of Korea, which has a history dating back to the twelfth century B.C., is being systematically destroyed. Freedom of speech, press, and assemblage is denied. The Korean language is forbidden in schools, the Japanese language being forced upon the population as the official tongue. Every city, village, mountain, river, and district 9
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