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April 1913               FLY MAGAZINE                9

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mended in this bill, and includes distinguished scientists and officers of the army and navy, presided over by the eminent Lord Rayleigh. It has already made two annual reports and its last volume shows a wonderful advance in the usefulness of its work. For example, one of the results of applying improvements suggested by its researches to a purchased foreign machine showed increases in speed of over ten miles per hour, in range of speed of two miles to ten and one-half miles per hour; in amount of load carried of ten per cent.; in climbing ability of one hundred per cent.; also in great increase in stability and ease of control and a very great increase in efficiency. 
France. Among the first laboratories to be established was that at the government military establishment at Chelais. This dealt primarily with balloons, but it is now strengthened by its co-operation with the private aerodynamical establishments at St. Cyr and Auteuil.
Private donations by wealthy patriots have almost made the science independent of government aid in France. M. Basil Zaharon first donated $140,000 to found a chair of aeronautics at the University of Paris and M. Henry Deutsch de la Meurthe later donated to the same university an "Aerotechnical Institute," located at St. Cyr and costing $100,000. He has also endowed the same with an annual income of $3000. This establishment was ready to begin operation in 1911 and its outside work, by means of an apparatus mounted on a testing car running over an extensive track, is a distinguishing feature of its accomplishments. Its director is a Doctor of Sciences and its advisory committee bears the names of some of the most eminent scientific experts in France, together with prominent representatives of the Aero Club and the Civil and military departments of the government.
Probably the most useful private laboratory today is that of M. Eiffel, originally located at the base of the tower that bears his name in Paris, but later removed to enlarged quarters at Auteuil. The two volumes of M. Eiffel's discoveries, representing the results of between 4000 and 5000 observations in less than two years, are among the most valuable contributions to aeronautical science and are practically the main reliance of those engineers and students of aeronautics in this country who can read French.
The United States. None of the institutions of learning in this country have as yet a systematic course for the study of aerodynamics, but many of them are anxious to commence and to co-operate in connection with a central National Laboratory established by the government. It is understood that a number of wealthy patriots are ready to contribute endowments to such an institution as soon as the government places the stamp of its approval and encouragement upon a national plant and thus inaugurates the enterprise in a systematic and substantial way. It is desired that the efforts of our government departments, our manufacturing plants and our institutions of learning in all parts of the country may thus be co-ordinated to the end of building up a national prestige in aeronautics that will further our interests in commerce and provide for the efficiency of our national defense.

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Items of Interest From Foreign Lands

An international hydro-aeroplane contest, with prizes aggregating $25,000 will be organized on Lake Constance from the eighth to the thirteenth of July of this year.
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The Russian War Ministry has organized an international competition for bomb-dropping from aeroplanes and dirigibles. There are two large prizes, and in addition the apparatus of the winner will be purchased by the Russian Government.
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At the Aviation meet held on February 23 for the benefit of the widow of the late Andre Frey, at the Juvisy aerodrome, thirty-three aviators, including the foremost pilots of the day, took part.
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An order for a large dirigible balloon is reported to have been placed by the Russian Government with a German firm at Bitterfeld.
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Two entries and Coupe Internationale, des Aeronautics have been received by the Aero Club of France from the Royal Aero Club of the United Kingdom. The entries are Jean de Francia and John Dunville.
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Leon Gerard and Earnest Demuyter have been officially selected by the Belgian Aero Club to represent them in the forthcoming contest for the Coupe Internationale des Aeronautes, which will start in October from the Tuilleries in Paris. 
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Stringent measures to prevent foreign aviators from flying over the western frontier of Russia have just been decided upon by the Imperial Government. A red flag during the daytime and a red lantern at night will be used to warn aviators. Should they fail to heed the warning the sentries will shoot.
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The Italian Government is organizing two aeroplanes contests, limited to Italian machines. Ten aeroplanes are to compete in a reliability test for motors and fifteen in a flying contest. The first prizes are: For the best motor, $15,000; for the best aeroplanes, $20,000, and an order of ten machines. 
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It is now certain that Belgium will compete for the first time time in the contest for the Coupe Internationale d'Aviation. M. Crombez has been selected as the entrant and will pilot a Deperdussin monoplane.
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Experiments in bomb-dropping from a height of 5000 feet have been carried on near Doeberitz by the German dirigible Hansa. They are reported to have been entirely successful.
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Frantz, a French military aviator, established a new record at Chartes on February 27, when he reached a height of 2033 feet with six passengers.
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Successful trials with new quick-firing gun especially designed to be fitted on an aeroplane are being carried on at the French military camp at Charles-sur-Marne.
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Taking advantage of the full on on February 24, the officers attached to the German aviation station at Metz, for the first time, successfully carried out night flight maneuvers. 
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