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Dr. J. G. Cooper, in South Florida, 1859; Dr. J. B. Holder, at the Tortugas, Florida, 1860; Mr. William Gabb, in San Domingo and Costa Rica, 1872 to '75; Dr. S. T. Walker, in Florida, 1879; Mr. Henry Hemphill, in Florida, 1882 to '85; Prof. D. S. Jordan, in Florida, 1883; Mr. Winifred Stearns, in Labrador, 1882. 

From the western coast, important collections have been received from Prof. R. E. C. Stearns, the results of many years collecting at numerous localities; from Mr. J. G. Swan, at Puget Sound, 1860 to 1884; Dr. C. A. Canfield, at Monterey and other places in California, 1860 to 1867; Mr. Henry Hemphill, at many places in California, 1874 to 1882; Mr. L. Belding, in the Gulf of California, 1880. The explorations of Mr. John Xantus on the Pacific coast and of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition in Alaska have already been spoken of. 

During 1882-83, Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, of the Museum staff, spent twenty months at the Commander Islands, and the neighboring coast of Kamtschatka, and brought back with him an exceedingly large representation of the marine and fresh water fauna of that region. 

Contributions have been made by Capt. J. M. Dow, of the Pacific Mail Steamship Line, from the west coast of the isthmus of the Panama and Central America, since 1858; by Dr. A. Schott, naturalist of the scientific survey of Yucatan, from 1864 to 1866; and by Prof. F. E. Sumichrast, from the isthmus of Tehuantepec, from 1868 to 1870. 

The Geological Commission of Brazil, under the direction of Prof. Chas. Fred. Hartt, an American, from 1874 to 1878, made very large and important collections of marine animals, especially on the coral reef regions bordering the Brazilian coast, and in 
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