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2 less-skilled empu make knives + sickles because easier; capital is a factor here too larger parapens with more capital + more experienced epus make larger + more difficult types of tools low grade iron (not steel) also tends to be used by smaller perapens [[left side]] small low-grade iron small tools less-qualified empus [[right side]] high grade steel large large tools better-qual. empus nowadays most common type of new mat are batoniser[[?]] - steel rods used in brick + building construction (John sayas a mild or low carbon steel which doesn't take tempe very well unless specially heated) - eager to try a non-teak charcoal if we make available - empu wages depend on type of product made + for scissors, for example, now 1250-1500 - suggested that we take them on a tour to Ceper - less women working as ubuls than before because "tenaga laki cukup" - complained that they all have eye + ear troubles - one person requested protective equipment colored glasses for working at the fire, clear for filing work - [[crossed out]][[?]][[/crossed out]] 'racum bebi' mixed in quenching water as sepoh - - used kikirs sold to tengkulaks who takes them to Sem where, are to them, they can be reworked process is kept secret by the Sem factory 1 tengkulak from village + rest from outside we saw fire shield over fire to protect Pak Wagiman in the vil. once had a rotary blower (subst. for a bellows) but poor results - als. destroyed so we couldn't see throw filings away but small bits of metal sold to a bakul for scraps - bellows small + made of jati or mangka wood plungers are made of kapok or rags (never use feathers) there is a proyek induk 1/2K from village