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less-skilled empu make knives + sickles because easier; capital is a factor here too
larger parapens with more capital + more experienced epus make larger + more difficult types of tools
low grade iron (not steel) also tends to be used by smaller perapens
[[left side]]
low-grade iron
small tools
less-qualified empus
[[right side]]
high grade steel
large tools
better-qual. empus

nowadays most common type of new mat are batoniser[[?]] - steel rods used in brick + building construction (John sayas a mild or low carbon steel which doesn't take tempe very well unless specially heated)
- eager to try a non-teak charcoal if we make available
- empu wages depend on type of product made + for scissors, for example, now 1250-1500
- suggested that we take them on a tour to Ceper
- less women working as ubuls than before because "tenaga laki cukup"
- complained that they all have eye + ear troubles - one person requested protective equipment
colored glasses for working at the fire, clear for filing work
- [[crossed out]][[?]][[/crossed out]] 'racum bebi' mixed in quenching water as sepoh - 
- used kikirs sold to tengkulaks who takes them to Sem where, are to them, they can be reworked
process is kept secret by the Sem factory
1 tengkulak from village + rest from outside
we saw fire shield over fire to protect
Pak Wagiman in the vil. once had a rotary blower (subst. for a bellows) but poor results - als. destroyed so we couldn't see
throw filings away but small bits of metal sold to a bakul for scraps - bellows small + made of jati or mangka wood
plungers are made of kapok or rags (never use feathers)
there is a proyek induk 1/2K from village