Viewing page 27 of 66

from the village of Ben. When they refused to toe the Dutch line, leaders of the so-called rebellion were exiled. The second case from Gianyar involved a number of villagers from Sukawati. In 1917, after the earthquake which rocked Bali, 125 of these villagers felt that the former Age of Kingdoms was at an end, and that they no longer had to carry out any of their corvee. In a judgement from the priestly courts they were ordered to work, but still refused, and so a district officer was sent with an armed brigade to challenge them. After a warning the officer ordered the brigade to open fire. Four villagers were killed immediately, a fifth died later, and seen others were woulded. Thirty of the survivors fled to make a life elsewhere....
The judgement of the priests on the Blacksmiths of the Beng says a great deal about what is going on in this remaking of traditional Bali. The Blacksmiths had always been one of the dissident groups in the caste system. They had refused to aknowledge  the four-caste scheme, and thus refused to accept the holy water of the brahmana priests. In the judgement on them the three priests of north Bali, with advice from Ida Wayan Pidada of Klungklung and three priests from Gianyar, let it be known tha the Blacksmiths were really sudra. Their claims in court to be considered as satria or members of the second caste were denied, and the court made determinations as to the terms of address other Balinese used to the Blacksmiths in everyday life (whether they were high-caste terms or not) and on the number of roofs they could have on their cremation towers, another sign of caste. the court ruled they were not entitled to the seven roofs that they had been using. On their refusal to use the holy water of the brahmana priests, the court decided that they were really of the residual category of 'Original Balinese' or [[underlined]] Bali Aga [[/underlined]], and so this did not represent a major issue."

p. 227: ftnote 33 to chap 4 - For the documents on this case and a complete discussion of the many issues involved, see Jean-Francois Guermonprez, [[underlined]] Les Pande de bali: La Formation d'une <> et la Vaeur d'une Titre. [[/underlined]] Paris: Ecole Francaise d'Extreme Orient. 1987, exp. app. C

p. 150 - 159"  royalty and priesthood set up various organizations in the 1920's aimed at getting people to follow the duties of their caste; pretense for this was the study of traditional literature and manuscripts
these organizations were challenged by educated commoners, especially in North Bali
"In 1925 a twenty-year-old teacher from the Blacksmith clan, Nengah Metra of Bratan, Buleleng, became the leader of a religious reform organisation which aimed to overturn the old feudal ties of caste in the name of progress. Nengah Metra was committed to the new ideal of modernization....Like most of the first generation of Balinese teachers, he had been trained in Java....
new ideas of equlity and of the value of education made commoners involved in schools unhappy with the idea of caste and the privileges of aristocracy. In 1921 the traditional rule of Buleleng, Gusti Putu Jlantik, se4t up the first religious reformist organisation, which was oriented towards education. It was superseded

Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation, and may include culturally sensitive information. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research. For questions or comments regarding sensitive content, access, and use related to this collection, please contact