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September 9—Admission Day (in Calif.).
September 12—Defenders' Day (in Md.).
September 14-Anniversary of Writing Star-Spangled Banner by Francis Scott Key (not a legal holiday but widely observed).
September 17-Constitution Day (not a legal holiday but widely observed).
October 1-Missouri Day (in Mo. schools)
October 12-Columbus Day (in Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., Fla., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., La., Me., Md., Mass., Mich., Mo., Mont., Neb., Nev., N. H., N. J., N. Mex., N. Y., N. Dak., Ohio, Ore., Pa., R. I., Tex., Utah, Vt., Wash., W. Va.; also in Puerto Rico. In Ark. and Kans. it does not affect notes or judicial proceedings).
October 12-Fraternal Day (in Ala. only).
October 18-Alaska Day (in Alaska only).
October 27-Navy Day (not a legal holiday but widely observed).
October 31-Admission Day (in Nev.)
November-(1st Tuesday after 1st Monday) General Election Day. All States and Territories except Alaska, Dist. of Columbia, Hawaii, Ill., Mass., Miss., Ohio., Philippines, and Vt. In Ill. it is a legal holiday in some cities. In Ohio it is a half holiday. In Me. it is a legal holiday only as to the courts, which also close on State Election Day (biennially, 2nd Monday in September).
November 11-Armistice Day (Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Fla., Ill., Iowa, La., Minn., Mo., Mont., Neb., N. J., N. C., N. Dak., Pa., R. I.,S. Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., and Hawaii. In other States by Governor's proclamation only).
November-Thanksgiving Day (traditionally observed on the last Thursday in November by proclamation of the President and Governors of the States).
December 25-Christmas Day (all States and Territories and possessions).
Good Friday-(Conn., Del., Fla., La., Md., Minn., N. J., Pa., Philippines, Puerto Rico, Tenn.).In Conn. Good Friday is usually proclaimed by the Governor as a day of fasting and prayer.
Arbor Day is a legal holiday in many States, although in some it is observed as designated by the Governor.


Name              |                Area

Greenland                   827,300 sq. miles
New Guinea                  305,900 sq. miles
Borneo                      290,000 sq. miles
Madagascar                  240,000 sq. miles
Baffin (Canada)             236,000 sq. miles
Sumatra                     167,000 sq. miles
Honshu (or Hondo), Japan     90,000 sq. miles
England                      89,000 sq. miles
Victoria (Canada)            74,000 sq. miles
Celebes                      69,000 sq. miles

 Words ending in -e drop that letter before the termination able, as in move, movable, uless ending in -ce or -ge, when it is retainted, as in change, changeable, etc. 
 Words of one syllable ending in a consonant, with a  single vowel. before it, double that consonant in derivatives, as ship, shipping, etc. But if ending in a consonant with a double vowel before it, they do not double the consonant in derivatives; as troop, trooper, etc.
 Words of more than one syllable ending in a consonant preceded by a single vowel, and accented on the last syllable, double that consonant in derivatives; as commit, committed. Exception: chagrin, chagrined. 
 Words of one syllable ending in l with a single vowel before it, have double ll at the close; as mill, sell, Exceptions: nil, pal, sol. 
  Words of one syllable ending l, with a double vowel before it, have only one l at the close as mail, sail. 
 The words foretell, distill, instill, and fulfill retain the double ll of their primitives. Derivatives of dull, skill, will, and full, also retain the double ll when the accent falls on these words; as dullness, skillful, willful, fullness.
 Words of more than one syllable ending in l have only one l at the close; as delightful, faithful; unless the accent falls on the last syllable; as in befal, etc. 
 Words ending in l, double that letter in the termination -ly. 
 Participles ending in -ing, from verbs ending in -e, lose the final -e; as have, having: make, making, etc.; but vers ending retain both; see, seeing. Dye, to color, and single, to scorch, however must retain the e before -ing. 
 All adverbs ending in -ly and nouns ending in -ment retain the e final of the primitives, as brave, bravely; refine, refinement; except words ending in -ge; as judge, judgement.
 Nouns ending in -y preceded by a vowel from their plural by adding s; as money, moneys; but if y is preceded by a consonant, it is changed to -ies in the plural; as bounty, bounties.
 Words whose primitives ending in -y change the y into i as beauty, beautiful. 


The Bible, according to one count, contains 3,586, 489 letters; 773,690 words; 31,173 verses; 1,189 chapters; and 66 books. The word and is used 46,277 times; Lord 1,855 times; selah, 72 times in the Psalms and three times in Habakkuk; and reverend, once. The middle verse of the Bible is the eighth verse of the 11th Psalm. ALl the letters of the alphabet except j are contained in the twenty-first verse of the seventh chapter of of Ezra. Two chapters in the Bible are alike: chapter nineteen of the Second Book of the Kings and chapter thirty-seven of Isaiah. The long- est verse is in the ninth in the eighth chapter of Ester; the shortest, the thirty-fifth in the eleventh chapter of St. John. 


SOS is the international distress call singla, chosen by the INternational Radio-telegraph Conference at London in 1912. The dot-dash signal is expressed by ... - - - ... (three dots, three dashes, and three dots). The letters were chosen merely for their simplicity, and were not intended to represent the initials of any words. 

Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation, and may include culturally sensitive information. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research. For questions or comments regarding sensitive content, access, and use related to this collection, please contact