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b. A location which is or can be within efficient time-distance of air transport users, through either or both:

(1) Express highway and transit links to a system serving the entire community, and

(2) Proximity to space which is or may be deployed for land used oriented to air transport.

c. A physical relationship to approach and take-off corridors which will permit safe vehicle operation, requiring protection against tall structures, etc.

2. The mere statement of these requirements makes it clear that airports cannot be successfully planned independent of both the planning and the control of the development of the rest of the urban community, primarily

a. The express highway and transit system, in most metropolitan areas still largely to be built (or rebuilt); but also

b. The land use system or pattern, especially for industrial and office-building uses - remembering that half of the land which will be in urban use by 1980 is now still rural or vacant, and much of the rest is subject to redevelopment.

3. It must also be clear that the planning of these other elements of the community is guided by many objectives and goals, of which the efficiency of airports and air transport is only one. The best location, or the best size, of the airport may have to be compromised, to maximize total community benefits - the consequences of a complex of many compromises. The sole reason for the existence of an airport is to serve the community.

(4. Parenthetically, the machinery for accomplishing this kind of comprehensive planning is very faulty. The responsibility is now fragmented among many city, suburban, county, and special district governments, state departments, and Federal agencies. Without drastic reorganization of governmental powers in metropolitan areas, the only road to effective planning is cooperation resting on goodwill and understanding. City planners need to understand airport needs. Airport and air transport people need to understand the needs of the other 99.44% of the community, especially the material under II below.)

II. The airport as a physical element of the urban landscape.

A. The (major) airport as a physical part of the city.

1. A major space-user: a big airport occupies several square miles, and if the 1952 President's Airport Commission advice were

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