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followed would pre-empt from urban development from 10 to 15 square miles. This is an area that might alternatively house 100,000 people plus all their factories, stores, offices, schools, playgrounds and streets.
2. A genuine hazard to life and property on the ground in the approach zones.
3. A serious noise nuisance, to the entire population within earshot not only of the airport but also of the approach and take-off patterns.
B. The effect of air transport on urban form and quality
1. The sheer size of airports spreads other urban land uses further apart, reducing gross densities, increasing the length and cost of the internal circulation system needed to serve the total city, and fragmenting the urban pattern.
2. If air transport becomes significant in internal urban circulation (that is, in commuting), its effect like that of the automobile will be to increase dispersion, further reduce density, and spread the future city so far as to be formless.
3. The nuisance aspects of air transport depreciate the attractiveness of areas within earshot and reduce the qualities of city living. Weather this can be proved by real estate prices, incidence of nervous disease and psychological ill health, or other objective or economic measures, it is nevertheless true; aircraft noise is an uncivilized and uncivilizing thing.
C. The Challenge of Air Transportation to Regional Planning
1. How far shall we permit the disruption of our cities in order to make maximum use of air transportation?
2. Is the sonic boom - and other aircraft noises associated with the development of air technology, as from jets and helicopters - necessary? Does our civilization have to do everything that we have discovered to be technically possible?
3. How can we decide these questions? Are we not mature enough - and wealthy enough - to introduce noneconomic as well as economic values into the decisions? What private or governmental machinery can we use to consider and implement such decisions?
4. Is it not time to realize that, unless we face these issues and consciously decide them, we are nevertheless unconsciously backing into a decision - which may be the best one, but probably isn't?
5. Compared with these problems, the challenge of meeting the planning problems raised by the first part of this paper is simple indeed.
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