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{SPEAKER name="Mildred Hill-Lubin"}
And, with this audience participation, you get, uh, the audience encouraging and responding, and of-- of course you see in the call-response pattern and if you've listened to any of Aretha Franklin's records or if you've listened to-- read any of the works or just be in a black church where the minister and the people are responding to each other, you'll see how this creativity is enhanced.

Here, uh, when you get the response from the people, then the leader or the artist is then encouraged to even perform better and better and he continues to move and he brings the audience along with him so that at the peak of the experience, as a kind of whole-ness or one-ness with the audience and the performer.

And, not only the audience and the performer but all of the instruments, everything becomes a part of it. I guess the best example would be how the piano participates with the audience. It can also act as a call-response participant along with the performer.

{SPEAKER name="Brooks B. Robinson"}
Now, these same characteristics are found in African life?

{SPEAKER name="Mildred Hill-Lubin"}
That's right. They are found in African life. This is why the literature of African people is so closely related to their lives.

I suppose I should have said one of the reasons I began interest in this had to do with, first, the establishment of the African aesthetic, or this notion of creativity, but this also had something to do with my trying to understand whether there were common features existing among all African people.

And I had read, uh, works by people such as Melville Herskovits who talked about the Negro past, and I had observed African people and I saw that, and when I speak of African people, I am talking about African Americans as well as African people elsewhere.

I cer-- I certainly observe features that were not characteristic of, um, of features of other groups in western society, or the majority of society, and I tried to determine what would be the origin of them, or what, if-- if anything were there, certain characteristics that possibly--

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