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believed to be now universally approved. Individual cases, which have arisen since, have met with the same considerate fairness.

Quite early in the year, the several religious denominations took strong ground in favor of the education of the freedmen. The principal argument was an appeal to sectional and sectarian prejudice, lest, the work being inevitable, the influence which must come from it be realized by others; but it is believed that this was but the shield and weapon which men of unselfish principle found necessary at first.

Advantage was immediately taken of the course of these religious bodies to extend the area of school operations. At towns and places where there were no troops, were found men willing, under cover of it, to open schools or to protect them, and whose position made them safe. Schools were opened in this way at Tuskegee, Auburn, Opelika, Salem, Greenville, Demopolis, Evergreen, Mount Meigs, Tuscaloosa, Gainesville, Marion and Wetumpka, and later at Troy, Cubaharchee, Prattville and Hayneville; while opportunities beyond our means are still developing.

It was found, however, that the presence of a school dispelled the prejudice against it, and the bitterness, at first so dangerous and obstructive, has been gradually converted to a positive approval.

The points where there were troops were left for teachers sent by Northern Aid Societies. At Mobile, Montgomery, Selma, Huntsville, Tuscumbia, Stevenson and Athens, help of this kind has been secured, though not in proportion to the field. According to the act of Congress, we have co-operated in such efforts by providing buildings and repairs. leaving the conduct and support of schools to their projectors. The net cost of these schools we do not know.

The Pittsburg Freedmen's Aid Commission, earliest in the field and caring for North Alabama, has schools at all of the five points last named, and promises an increase of its usefulness in projecting an academy for teachers.


In Middle Alabama, the principal assistance received has been rendered by the Cleveland Freedmen's Union Commission. This active and liberal organization sent out four teachers in the spring; and for the fall and winter session it supports seven teachers and a matron to care for their household, in Montgomery, and three teachers in Talladega. Besides the pay and maintenance of these, thisCommission has made quite liberal contributions of clothing for distribution to the destitute; and their zealous and able teachers impart instruction in Sunday schools to nearly one thousand pupils of all ages.

The Northwestern Freedmen's Aid Society, at Mobile, continues there a work, the excellent results of which already show a marked advancement of the colored people of Mobile. Since the release of the Medical College building in that city to its former owners, it has been found difficult to secure sufficient school room to accommodate the large number of pupils taught last spring.

The Marine Hospital at Mobile, having unrivalled fitness for a place of education, and scarce one-tenth of the inmates it had capacity to accommodate, an effort was made to secure its transfer to the Bureau. The necessary authority was procured, but the threatening proximity of cholera and yellow fever to Mobile, and the difficulties met with in attempting to locate the inmates as suitably elsewhere, have thus far delayed its occupation for school purposes.

In both classes of schools, so far as they were controlled by the Bureau, the principle has been enforced that while all should be made welcome, those who could must pay. A dollar and a half a month or less, as circumstances seemed to dictate, has been collected and applied, although the destitute have been so far in the majority, that no school has been self-supporting.

Expenses of our own schools have been defrayed from means procured under the Order of the President, and the twelfth section of the Act extending the duration of the