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Beautiful Lee Ya-Ching tours United States in the interest of her people.

Flynn Fiasco Stirs Foreign Service; Diplomats Require Years of Training

(Special by New York Herald Tribune to The Miami Daily News)

NEW YORK, March 20.—The Edward J. Flynn fiasco has stimulated interest in the United States foreign service, the average citizen wanting to know something about the diplomats who have the wartime responsibility of representing this country abroad.

Questions about Nelson T. Johnson, minister to Australia, are being asked by Americans who never heard of him before President Roosevelt sent Mr. Flynn's name to the senate for confirmation as Mr. Johnson's successor at Canberra.

One of the reasons for Mr. Flynn's failure to obtain senate approval was lack of training or experience in the diplomatic service. Mr. Johnson, on the other hand, is a distinguished "career man' of the state department. Although he will not be 56 years old until April 3, he has spent 35 years int the foreign service. Born in Washington and educated at George Washington university, Mr. Johnson went to China in 1907 as a student interpreter. Serving at Mukden, Harbin, Hankow, Shanghai, Changsha, and Chungking, and rising through various classes, he became chief of the division of Far Eastern affairs in 1925 and assistant secretary of state two years later. He was appointed minister to China in 1929 and when, in 1935, the United States raised its legation in China to the status of embassy, Mr. Johnson was made ambassador. He was sent to Australia two years ago. Mrs Johnson and their two small children are with him now. 

Long Service in Far East
Mr. Johnson's predecessor as minister to Australia, Clarence E Gauss, 56 years old, is ambassador to China. A career man who entered the state department in 1906 as a $900-a-year clerk, Mr Gauss has devoted a quarter of a century to diplomatic service in the Far East, mostly in China.

Australia is one of four subdivisions of the British Empire in which the United States has ministers. The others are Canada, New Zealand and South Africa. There is an ambassador to the Court of St. James, and, in addition, the president has a personal representative, with the rand of ambassador, in India. This officer is William Phillips, 64, a law graduate of Harvard, who has served as minister to the Netherlands and Luxemburg, ambassador to Belgium, minister to Canada, undersecretary of state and, just before the war, ambassador to Italy.

Like Mr. Phillips, Mr. Flynn was to have been appointed not only minister but a personal ambassador of the president, it being understood that he was to have been accredited to several places in the Pacific area. The president, as the head of a sovereign state, may send a representative and designate him whatever he pleases, provided the country to which the representative is sent will accept him. Hence President Roosevelt could send Joseph C. Grew to Australia without the latter having to step down from the rank of ambassador he held in Japan. Mr. Grew is mentioned prominently as a possible choice for the Australian post because of his long experience in international affairs, his understanding of the Japanese people and his knowledge of the general situation in the far East—all this in view of the strategic importance of Australia in the ar. 

Thirty-eight of Mr. Grew's 62 years have been passed in the diplomatic service. He was born in Boston on May 27, 1880, was graduated from Harvard in 1902 and appointed a clerk in the American consulate general at Cairo July 19, 1904. His diplomatic posts have included those of minister to Denmark and Switzerland, ambassador to Turkey and, for 10 years before the war, ambassador to Japan. He formerly was 

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undersecretary of state, and he held several most responsible positions that had to do with treaties at the end of the World war and during the postwar period. He is at Washington as a special assistant to Secretary of State Cordell Hull. Mr. Grew's three daughters all married career diplomats. One of them is the widow of Jay Pierrepont Moffat, American minister to Canada, who died recently.

Others Qualified

Besides Mr. Grew there are a number of career men who are considered qualified to represent the United States in Australia, notably (among those not serving as ambassadors or ministers) George A. Gordon, 57, former minister to the Netherlands, and John C. Wiley, 49, former minister to Estonia and Latvia, both of whom are in government service at Washington.

About half of this country's ambassadors and ministers are men who have come up through the service. Among the eminent career men ae Sumner Welles, undersecretary of state; Ray Atherton, acting chief ot the European division; Maxwell Hamilton, chief of the division of Far Eastern affairs; Norman Armour, ambassador to Argentina, and Jefferson Caffrey, ambassador to Brazil. 

Ambassadors now in important posts who are not foreign service career men include John G. Winant (Great Britain), Admiral William H. Standley (Union of Socials Soviet Republics), and Lawrence A. Steinhardt (Turkey). 

The salary of an ambassador is $17,500 a year, that of a minister $10,000. An ambassador heds the staff of an embassy, which as a rule is to be found in one of the larger countries. A minister is in charge of a legation, in a country not sufficiently large or important to have an ambassador. 

The rank is reciprocal, as agreed upon by the United States and the other nation. For example, the United States and Mexico exchange ambassadors, the United States and Afghanistan exchange ministers, with inter-American affairs regarded as increasingly important, the United States now sends ambassadors to the governments of all the republics in South America. 

Age Deadline

A consul (whose duties pertain not to diplomatic but chiefly to commercial matters) is in charge of a consulate, and the United States normally maintains consulates in the principal cities of the world. Both diplomatic and consular offices are under the foreign service. 

The foreign service of the United States is open to men and women between the ages of 21 and 35. Most of those who enter it are college graduates who have completed one or two additional years of specialized study. After a person has passed the department's entrance examinations he is sent abroad for service of about one year as a vice consul, then is returned to Washington and placed in the foreign service school. Comparatively few women enter the service.

Advancement is on the basis of efficiency, with certain restriction as to rapidity. There are three unclassified grades—A, B and C. With progression mainly by seniority, it usually takes a man at least six years to get through them. Next, he gets into the classified service, which has eight divisions. Up to class 5 he must stay in every class at least 18 months, and from class 5 up, he must stay in every class at least two years. Many men never get to class 1.

A member of the foreign service may retire after 30 years of service, at the discretion of the secretary of state; otherwise, he must retire at the age of 65 unless the president extends the period, as he may do for five years at a time. These regulations do not apply to ambassadors or ministers who, regardless of age or number of years in the department, serve at the pleasure of the president.

paradise in a cage. "I was [[in]] Shanghai and, naturally, I [[started]] to do volunteer work at [[once]] helped out in hospitals as a [[nurse]] and did any relief work that I [[could]] possibly do. At the fall of Shanghai, it became very unhealthy [[for]] any patriotic Chinese to stay [[there]] so I moved on to Hong Kong [[?]] Canton."
It was in Canton that her [[family]], who were followers of Sun [[?]], took active part in the [[overthrow]] of the Manchu dynasty. [[?]] let her tell you.
"My family always wanted [[?]] free and to make China [[progressive]]. During the revolution [[her]] grandmother set up an [[embroidery]] shop in Canton. Naturally, it [[?]] only a camouflage, where the [[revolutionists]] could meet in the [[camp]] at night. Nobody even [[though?]] suspecting my grandmother [[she?]] was a very dignified lady.

Aided Revolutionists
"In that shop many [[important]] thing were decided," she [[continues]]. "For instance, how to [[smuggle]] ammunition and gunpowder to the rest of the revolutionists [[?]] father and one of my uncles threw a homemade bomb [[from?]] housetop down on a procession [[and]] killed a very evil general.
"So you see," and Ya-[[Ching]] smiles faintly, "My people [[always]] had a strong spirit for their [[country]] and I was brought up to [[think?]] of that before anything else.
"Another reason for my [[choosing]] flying as a career was [[because I]] am an only child and my [[father]] brought me up with all the advantages of a girl and a boy. I [[learned]] every outdoor sport at an [[early?]] age, and isn't flying the top [[o? everything]]?" she says, and this [[?]] smiles not only with her mouth [[?]] in a way which lights up her [[whole]] face.
"Yes," Ya-Ching agrees, "[[its]] often hard not to hear from [[my?]] family, but it isn't possible [[after?]] the fall of Hong Kong. How [[?]] I do believe that they are all [[right.]]
"The Tigress of China" has [[?]] many spare moments. When [[she]] isn't flying to some part of [[the]] United States to enlighten our [[people]] about the Chinese, she is [[helping?]] the United China Relief by [[giving]] lectures, talking over the [[?]] and, in general, being an [[exquisite?]] ambassadoress for her country.
"I want to be worth while [[to?]] people and my family, because I [[love]] them so deeply," she [[concluded.]]
That is Lee Ya-Ching, [[?]] spirited, head high, gracious, [[patient,]] with one thought upper [[?]] in her mind and heart--China.

Transcription Notes:
double brackets indicate words that were cutoff in the 4th column

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