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As mentioned before, the instructor should show the student the connection between his difficulties in the new maneuver and the errors in his technique and understanding of the components that comprise it and then return for a few periods of practice on the components until the errors are eliminated.

This resulted in the training becoming a series of advances and retreats with each advance a little further and each retreat a little less. In this way the student gains a much better conception of flying and all the principles involved.  He can then analyze his errors for himself and cooperate with the instructor rather than blindly attempt to comply with detailed instructions that may not be too clear to his limited perceptions.

The development of the power of analysis of flight maneuvers, technique, and errors will ultimately give him the soundest possible basis for all future flying and result in making him an expert pilot able to take care of himself and his equipment under any circumstances over which he exercises any control, and to exercise the very best judgment, and act accordingly, in circumstances over which he has no control.


There is no question but that a student must begin his flying in a mechanical fashion both as to his pressures on the controls and in the use of some object as a reference for judging the attitude of the ship. In the early phases he simply imitates to the best of his ability the actions of the instructor and attempts to comply blindly with instructions given.  Consequently, all his movements and responses are the result of conscious thought and deliberate prodding of the memory. As experience is gained, these must become automatic through the formation of correct habits. Although with each new maneuver this same period is again experienced, these mechanical periods should become of decreasing duration.

The question is often asked as to how long these periods should last. This is largely a matter of the individual and in some rare cases they are always present. However, all students should show definite indications of having acquired considerable freedom from the mechanical stage in all the primary maneuvers before being allowed to solo.

Judging the student from this standpoint should not be difficult for the instructor following the course outlined in this bulleting, for the course is arranged so that it includes so many combinations of the fundamentals, that such a condition should be easily recognized.

In cases of doubt, a change in pace or tempo in the performance of the maneuvers will quickly result in the complete confusion of the mechanical student.

An instructor may reasonably expect the following minimum progress:

On the first flight, some semblance of ease and relaxation should be shown and a knowledge of the mechanical action of the controls gained.

On the second, the student should begin to show evidence of having retained instructions and show some ability in moving hands and feet together in attempts to properly coordinate the controls.

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