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[[image - photograph]] [[caption]] SAVAGERY AND ARSENAL TAKE THEIR TOLL ON LITTLE AFRICA JUNE 1,1921. [[/caption]] a group of negroes exhibiting a spirit of lawlessness, a group of probably fifty negroes left the negro section of the city, came through the business section and marched on the courthouse. There was no occasion for their coming. The member of their race was not in jeopardy at all, but under the inflammatory action of lawless negro leaders, demands were made of the sheriff and insults hurled at the white citizens attracted by the negro mob. The shooting began and the riot was on." Clarence B. Douglas, a former colonel and early Tulsa historian stated, "... a vicious white influence has been at work among the negroes aided and abetted by vicious members of the negro race; that meetings were held, incendiary speeches made and that preparations for racial trouble had been made by the assembling of a large amount of high powered ammunition and modern weapons of offense." William Cherry, brother of Jim Cherry who was a negro constable stated, "That fellow Dick Rowland should have been taken out to the edge of town and horsewhipped, tarred and feathered. He is one of the same bunch that started this awful thing." These statements were given coverage and came to represent the "official" civic position. As the national guard fought for control of the area through the evening of June 1 and throughout the day of Thursday, June 2, civic organizations were organized such as the Tulsa Executive Welfare Committee to assist the victims. Other organizations such as the American Red Cross were augmented as well as the national guard itself. It was reinforced by approximately one hundred American Legionnaire World War 1 veterans who were sworn in as "special officers" to enforce the law. On June 2, Adjutant General Charles Barret issued Field Order Number 4 which directed that "all able bodied negro men remaining in detention camp at the Fairgrounds and other places in the city of Tulsa will be required to render such service and perform such labor as is required by the military commission and the Red Cross in making the proper sanitary provisions for the care of refugees..." Field Order Number 5 issued from his headquarters closed McNulty Camp as a detention center and ordered the removal of all prisoners to the Fairgrounds. Friday, June 3, 1921. Governor J.B.A. Robertson, in a public criticism of local city officials demanded the calling of a Grand Jury to investigate the causes of the riot and return indictment where appropriate. (One of the results of the Grand Jury report would be impreachment [[impeachment]] and conviction of chief of police John A. Gustafson who was suspended and later convicted in a district court trial "for failure to take proper precautions for the protection of life and property during the rioting...and conspiracy to free automobile thieves and collect rewards." At 3:00 P.M., Adjutant General Charles Barrett revoked the state of martial law and the national guard turned the [[image - photograph]] [[image - photograph]] [[caption]] CAPTURED NEGROS BEING TAKEN TO INTERNMENT CENTER AT CONVENTION HALL JUNE 1st 1921 [[/caption]]
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