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French- before 1500
- Limoges (name of town) enamel and method: process of painting with enamel on the surface of metal
- family of Penicaud (first to show use of drawgs. on copper
- enameled portraits by Leonard Limousin and Pierre Raymond


Russian- very different type
- plique-a-jour or backless enamel, using mainly transparent colors

Chinese and Japanese- Chinese cloissone copied and executed out by Japanese from 1596 onward
- Japanese began dull-finish type by rubbing with fine files and eliminated firing after stoning process. Thus, an eggshell-like finish
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