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that are tumultuous. In both of these realms, there are many experiences to be fathomed from 'why does it rain' to 'why do we cry?'. As the child fathoms them, he gains strength from doing so."15

Perceiving the value of literature, authors must begin to write for black children in ways that will deliberately attempt to eradicate the harmful influences that exist. In this way authors will begin to effect a change in the self-concept of black children. In order to accomplish this task, it is essential that authors not only understand the historical and environmental forces that affect black children, they must understand the important psychological needs that arise out of the "black experience." With this in mind, authors will begin to evaluate past literature and to create new literature with a new understanding. Black literature must achieve three essential criteria if it is to be of value to black children: black literature must completely nullify the deceptive influences that prevent black children from finding self-esteem; black literature must convey realism; and black literature must be authentic.

1 Lerone Bennett, Before the Mayflower, Chicago. Johnson Publishing Company, 1962, pp. 40-41.

2 Le Roi Jones, Blues People, New York, William Morrow and Company, 1963, p. 1.

3 Ibid, p. 3.

4 Bennett, op. cit., pp. 73-75

5 William C. Kvaraceus et. al., Negro Self-Concept, New York, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1965m p. 11.

6 Ibid, p. 2.

7 Kenneth Clark, Dark Ghetto, New York, Harper and Row, 1965, p. 22.

8 Ibid., p. 23.

9 Ibid., p. 25.

10 Ibid., p. 30.

11 Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited Inc., Youth in the Ghetto, New York, Haryou, 1964, p. 103.

12 Ellen Lurie, "Community Action in East Harlem," The Urban Condition, Ed. by Leonard J. Duhl, New York, Basic Books, 1963, p. 282.

13 Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited Inc., op. cit., p. 108.

14 Harold Isaacs, The New World of Negro Americans, pp. 163-168

15 Jacquelyn Sanders, "The Psychological Significance of Children's Literature," A Critical Approach to Children's Literature, Ed. by Sara I. Fenwick, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1967, p. 15.

Exemplifying literature dealing with necessary black-oriented themes, is my short story entitled "Treasures." The story revolves around the relationship of a young boy with an old man, who introduces the youth to Frederick Douglass, one of the outstanding figures in black history.