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other, the allegation is undoubtedly supported by fact.  But the consumption varies greatly with the climate of the locality.  In hot, moist, relaxing provinces as Bengal, Berar, and the South of India, the consumption by all classes and sexes is very large and continuous.  Spirits, in a certain quantity, are taken early in the morning, and the dram is renewed during the day and at night, as a habit for the preservation of health, and as a stimulant for the increase of strength; but drinking does not proceed to intoxication in these instances.  In many, however, of the higher, and more commonly of the lower orders, drinking becomes an habitual and fearful vice.  In some districts of the Deccan and Central India, where the climate is dry and invigorating, the use of ardent spirits is almost unknown, and distillers only find a livelihood in large towns, where the population is of a mixed character.  In the great jungles and forests of India, peopled by aboriginal races, who alone can live in them, almost every family distils and consumes its own liquor, as a preventive against malaria.  In short, there are few classes in India, whether Hindoo or Mahomedan, who do not indulge in ardent spirits, which are invariably drank raw and undiluted.  The use of them is not prohibited by and law of the Hindoo faith, but it is expressly prohibited by the Koran, and by all classes of orthodox Mahomedans.  Hindoos use spirits in offerings to Bhowanee, Devee or Kalee, and other objects of worship; and they are freely used in sacrifices to the deities who are believed to preside over village communities, the orgies attendant on which, and for the prevention or staying violent epidemics, are of a fearful description.  Brahmins ought not to taste spirits, and comparatively very few do so, even privately or after sacrifices; and there are other castes who affect purity even higher than Brahminical, to whom even the smell of spirits is an utter abomination.

   Spirits are distilled from rice, from jowary and other millets, from the bark of some shrubs, from the thick fleshy flowers of the mohwah, and from molasses, or mixtures of these and other ingredients, according to the strength and flavour required.  Some of the spirits are very pure and wholesome; other kinds are deleterious to health, and produce maddening intoxication and most mischievous effects.  Everywhere the freshest, and consequently the most fiery, spirit is drank as soon as made, and, except in the Government district distilleries, where they exist, there is no stock of liquor kept in India.

   The person represented in the Photograph is an ordinary Kullal, or distiller and seller of spirits, for the two occupations are in most--indeed in all--instances inseparable, and have been the hereditary employment of the family for generations.  Kullals marry only in their own profession, or caste, as it has actually become, all over India.  They are Soodras, but do not rank so high in that grade as carpenters, blacksmiths, cultivators, or other divisions.  They are, however, esteemed respectable in their degree.  It is said that they do not drink