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the Yokuts being confined to the plains and lower foothills. From the San Joaquin to the Kaweah river the upper waters of the streams are in possession of a number of groups bearing different local names, but all comprised under the Monachi or Mono and popularly known as such. Tule river is entirely held by Yokuts, but is separated by a secondary range from Kern river farther east, which flows southward to emerge into the valley at a considerable distance beyond, and which in its upper course is Shoshonean, being held by the Tübatulabal. Deer creek, the next stream south of Tule river, was Shoshonean in its upper part, the Bankalachi, related to the Tübatulabal, living across the secondary divide from them. The streams to the south of this, White river and Poso creek, were again Yokuts to the head waters. At Kern River the Yokuts extended to above Kern Falls, where they met the Tübatulabal. In the mountains south of Kern river, stretching to Tehachapi pass, were the Shoshonean Kawaiisu, belonging to the far distant Ute-Chemehuevi dialectic group, and quite isolated in speech from their nearest Shoshonean neighbors. Continuing still farther south and west along the mountains, on Tejon creek and the neighboring streams, there were the Gikidanum, who formed part of the Serrano group of the southern California branch, whose territory, except in this one instance, was south of the Tehachapi divide. While it thus appears that four
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