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[[underlined]] Chapter III. [[/underlined]]

and Chinese Turkistan are still lamentably scanty; but mounds apparently of this class are known to exist there. About the occurrence of a closely similar if not actually identical type of burial in northwestern China there is now no longer any doubt. As we have seen, it first appears in that region about or not very long after the beginning of the 1st millennium B.C. Its introduction there seems connected in some way with the Chou conquest of northern China; and the Chous, we know, invaded the middle Yellow River valley from the west (30).

While true mound-burials in China seem not to antedate the Chou conquest, the practice of depositing red pigment with the dead was widespread in the province of Kansu throughout the prehistoric "Painted Pottery" period there; personal letter of 25 June, 1931, from the late Dr. Davidson Black.
Regarding this point, see [[underlined]] Mems. Geol. Survey of China [[/underlined]], Ser. A, No. 5, 1925: Davidson Black, "A Note on the Physical Characters of the Prehistoric Kansu Race", page 55.

The common occurrence in two such widely sundered areas as southeastern Russia and northern China of any one of the traits named above would not of itself necessarily be of any great significance. The use, for instance, of red pigment in burials is found in many parts of the globe. The existence however of a whole complex of features like the foregoing establishes a strong presumption at least of the transmission of cultural contacts from west to east along the age-old route of the "corrisor of the steppes".

[[underlined]] Conclusion of our Visit. [[/underlined]]
On the afternoon of the 25th, accompanied by a small guard of soldiers, we crossed the Wei River and went to see a large irregularly shaped and tree-grown mound known locally as the "Watchtower of Ch'u Chuang Wang" (31), visible a mile or so to the southwestward (pl. 12, fig. 1).

This ruler of the powerful non-Chinese Yangtze River kingdom of Ch'u, in the course of his long wars with the state of Chin, then the
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