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[[underlined]] APPENDIX II. [[/underlined]]

(mythical) emperor Huang Ti 黃帝 (8).
[[underlined]] Shih chi, [[/underlined]] chapt. XIII, fol. 6-b.
Whatever the latter statement may mean, there are indications that not only Shu but also the other historical Yangtze River states were founded by intruders stemming ultimately from the Tibeto-Burman linguistic stock --- perhaps, more specifically, from that branch of it represented today by the Lolos and their kindred. For Lolo and closely allied tongues are spoken even now over wide areas of southern China, not only by the Lolos proper --- a tall, slender, non-Mongoloid race --- but also by many groups of southern Mongoloids as well. Yet wherever they occur, it is the true Lolos who form the landholding and dominant class.
In western China as elsewhere, it has been the blood of the peasantry that has in the long run determined the physical type of the population; but the wide distribution of Lolo and closely related languages points unmistakably to extensive immigration and presumably conquest by their speakers, perhaps in prehistoric times.
Be all this as it may, Shu is named among the eight western groups (whether states, districts, or tribes) said to have assisted the Chous, toward the close of the 2nd millennium B.C. (9), in their overthrow of the Shangs; its founding must therefore have taken place at some time prior to that event (10). Shu's later history as an independent state, better
On the dating of the Chou conquest of northern China, see my paper in the JAOS on "The Chronology of Ancient China", cited in note 50 (page 78 of the text).
The list of these eight peoples (or states?) is given, in practically identical form, in the [[underlined]] Chu shu chi nien [[/underlined]] ("Annals of the Bamboo Books"), under the 52nd year of Ti Hsin 帝辛 (1050 B.C. Ti Hsin was the last ruler of the Shang Dynasty, and is said to have been put to death by his conqueror, the Chou king); in the [[underlined]] Shu ching [[/underlined]] ("Classic of History"), [[underlined]] Mu shih [[/underlined]] 牧誓, par. 3; and in the [[underlined]] Shih chi [[/underlined]], chapt. IV.