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[[underlined]] APPENDIX II. [[/underlined]]

So closely similar are these lists to one another that they would seem all to derive ultimately from some common source (perhaps a traditional one) dating back to early Chou times. They receive partial confirmation, moreover, from the fact that most of the included names occur in other ancient works as those of places or peoples situated mainly in the upper Yangtze valley and immediately adjacent regions. See also [[underlined]] infra [[/underlined]], note 14 (page 6).

known to us (at least in its main outlines), terminated with its conquest by Ch'in, in the year 316 B.C. Its name however survives to this day as the "literary" designation of the province of Szechuan, with which it partially coincided.

[[underlined]] The State of Pa. [[/underlined]]
The next state to appear along the Yangtze, slightly farther downstream than Shu, was Pa 巴, with its political center at or near the present Chungking (Chung-ch'ing 重慶), just where the southward-flowing Chia-ling 嘉陵 Chiang joins the greater river.
The name "Pa", it has been suggested, may stand for the same word as that represented by the second syllable in our name "Tibet" (11), and by the initial sounds in "Padaioi", mentioned by Herodotus, and "Bautai" and "Bautisos", occurring in Ptolemy (12). This identification, if correct, would suggest for at least the ruling class of Pa a Tibeto-Burman connection --- something probable enough on other grounds also.
At all events, in both population and culture, Pa was undoubtedly closely related to Shu, its next neighbor upstream; and the two states are in fact often mentioned together in a way which appears to imply something more than mere geographical propinquity. The rulers of Pa, we are told, belonged to the same clan as did the Chou kings (which would seem to indicate some relationship with the latter (13) ); and the little
The Tibetans refer to themselves as the "Böd".
Both the Padaioi and the Bautai have been equated (tentatively)