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(Skutch transcribes the Dawn Calling of Costa Rican Buff-throated Saltators as "tralé le-e-le, trale'le-e-le...".) All Dawn Calling notes of this type, by themselves alone, sound very much like Flourishes. The Dawn Calling of one captive individual included a few single, loud, harsh "Cheewink" Notes (all or most of which had rattling undertones), interjected at irregular intervals among softer five-syllabled notes of the usual type. These "Cheewink" Notes probably are related to the Rattles and semi-rattling notes in some Dawn Calling performances of Streaked Saltators and Crimson-backed Tanagers. The Dawn calling of Buff-throated Saltators usually is not accompanied by special movements. But one captive bird (not the individual that uttered "Cheewink"s) was observed to perform slight wing movements during one burst of Dawn Calling.  It flicked its wings upward, a fraction of an inch, each time it uttered a note, and lowered them again (to the usual resting position) between notes. I think that the wings also were quivered very briefly, slightly, and rapidly while they were raised.  This was reminiscent of the more exaggerated "Upward Wing-quivering" which accompanies the Dawn Calling of Brown-capped Bush-tanagers (and at least one species of [[underlined]] Atlapetes)
[[/underlined]]. The hostile repertory of Buff-throated Saltators includes both special movements and ritualized postures, in addition to the calls and notes cited above. Among these ^ [[insertion]] non-vocal patterns [[/insertion]] are Gaping, "Crest-raising", Bowing (and Pivoting) Head-lowered Postures, Bill-up Postures, Lateral Fluffing, and Belly-ruffling.  Bill-up Postures were observed to be performed by both captive and wild individuals. All the other patterns were seen only during disputes among captive individuals. Crest-raising may have been overlooked in the wild because it is inconspicuous. The remaining patterns probably are produced only when motivational conflict is very strong. They were observed only during prolonged disputes between individuals in close proximity to one another. They may be perfor

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Transcription Notes:
Alexander Frank Skutch AlexanderFSkutch.jpg Born May 20, 1904 Baltimore, Maryland Died May 12, 2004 (aged 99) San Isidro del General, Costa Rica Fields Ornithology Botany Philosophy Alma mater Johns Hopkins University Author abbrev. (botany) Skutch Spouse Pamela Lankester Doctor Alexander Frank Skutch (May 20 – 2004) was a naturalist and writer. He published numerous scientific papers and books about birds

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