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W. H. HOLMES' ARTICLES FROM THE HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN INDIANS, BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY, 1905.

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chief was, Church went with his Indian soldiers and only one white companion to capture him. When he reached the retreat, a rocky hill in the middle of a swamp, he sent the captives forward to divert the attention of Annawan's people. Church and his scouts then stole up, the noise they made being drowned by the sound of a pestle with which a woman was pounding corn, and jumped to the place where the arms were stacked. Annawan and his chief counselors, thus surprised and ignorant of the fewness of their assailants, gave themselves up and were bound. The fighting men, who were encamped near by, surrendered when they were told that the place was surrounded by English soldiers. Annawan brought the wampum belts and other regalia of King Philip, which he gave to Capt. Church as his conqueror, who had now overcome the last company that stood out against the English. Annawan's captor interceded to have his life spared, but the authorities at Plymouth, extracting from him a confession that he had put to death several English prisoners, some of them with torture, beheaded him in 1676 while Capt. Church was absent. (F.H.)

Anne. See Queen Anne.

Annugamok. A Nushagagmiut village on an E. tributary of Nushagak r., Alaska; pop. 214 in 1880.

Annugannok.--Petroff, 10th Census, Alaska, 17, 1884. Annuganok.--Nelson in 18th Rep. B.A.E., map, 1899. Anoogamok.--Petroff, Rep. on Alaska, 49, 1884.

Annuities. See Agency System.

Anoatok ('windy'). An Ita settlement at C. Inglefield, N. Greenland, the northernmost human habitation, lat. 78º31'.

Anatoak.--Markham in Trans. Ethnol. Soc. Lond., 129, 1866. Anoreto.--Stein in Petermann's Mittheil., IX, map 1902. Anuatok.--Kane, Arctic Explorer, II, 107, 1856. Rensselaer Harbor.--Ibid., I, 12.

Anoginajin (anog 'on both sides,' i-prefix, na- 'with feet,' zing 'to stand erect': 'he stands on both sides'). A band of the Wakpaatonwedan deivision of the Mdewakanton, named from its chief.
A-nog-i-na jin.--Neill, Hist. Minn., 144, note, 1858.
He-stands-both-sides.--Ibid.

Anoixi. A village or division, probably of a southern Caddoan tribe, formerly situated near the Hot Springs country of Arkansas. Through this region De Soto's troops passed in the winter of 1541 on their way toward the place where De Soto later met his death. See Gentleman of Elvas (1557) in French, Hist. Coll. La., II, 182, 1850. Cf. Annocchy, a synonym of Biloxi. (A.C.F.)

Anonatea. A Huron village situated a league from Ihonatiria, in Ontario in 1637.--Jesuit Relation for 1637, 143, 1858.
Anenatea.--Ibid., 141. Anonatra.--Ibid., 166 (misprint).

Anoritok ('without wind'). An Eskimo settlement in E. Greenland, lat. 61º45'.--Meddelelser om Gronland, XXV, 23, 1902.
Aneretek.--Ausland, 162, 1886.

Anouala. According to Le Moyne (De Bry, map, 1591) a village in 1564 on a W. branch of St Johns r., Fla., in the territory occupied generally by tribes of the Timuquanan family.
Novola.--Jeffreys, Am. Atlas, 24, 1776.

Anovok. A Magemiut Eskimo village on a small river N. of Kuskokwim bay, Alaska; pop. 15 in 1890.
Annovokhamiut.--11th Census, Alaska, 109, 1893.

Anpanenikashika ('those who became human beings by the aid of the elk'). A Quapaw division.
An'pan e'nikaci'ka.--Dorsey in 15th Rep. B.A.E., 230, 1897. Elk gens.--Ibid, 229. On phun enikacika.--Ibid.

Ansactoy. A village, probably of a part of the Patwin division of the Copehan family which formerly lived in Napa and Yolo cos., Cal. It concluded a treaty of peace with Gov. Vallejo in 1836.--Bancroft, Hist. Cal. IV, 71, 1886.
Ansaimes. A village, said to have been Costanoan, in California; situated in the mountains 25 m. E. of the Mutsun, whom the inhabitants of this village attacked in 1799-1800.--Engelhardt, Franciscans in Cal., 397, 1897.
Absayme.--Taylor in Cal. Farmer, Nov. 23, 1860.
Ansaimas.--Ibid.

Anskowinis (Anskowinis, 'narrow nose-bridge'). A local band of the Cheyenne, taking its name from a former chief. (J.M.)

Antap. A former Chumashan village at the mill near San Pedro, Ventura co., Cal.--Henshaw, Buenaventura MS. vocab., B.A.E., 1884.

Antigonishe. Mentioned as an Indian settlement on a river of the same name which rises in a lake near the coast of the Strait of Canso, in "the province and colony of New Scotland." It was probably on or near the site of the present Antigonishe, in Antigonishe co., Nova Scotia, and perhaps belonged to the Micmac.
Artigoniche.--Alcedo, Dic. Geog. I, 161, 1786.

Antiquity. The antiquity of man on the American continent is a subject of interest to the student of the aborigines as well as to the historian of the human race, and the various problems that arise with respect to it in the region N. of Mexico are receiving much scientific attention. As the tribes were without a system of writing available to scholars, knowledge of events that transpired before the Columbia discovery is limited to the rather indefinite testimony furnished by tradition, by the more definite but as yet fragmentary evidences of archaeology, and by the internal evidence of general ethnological phenomena. The fact that the American Indians have ac-

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