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42        T H E  L I B E R A T O R .     MARCH 13.
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POETRY.
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For the Liberator.

WHO ARE FREE?

Freedom is no gift of man;
 Freedom is our birthright;--all
Freedom is Heaven's glorious plan.

None can call his brother 'Slave!'
 And himself continue free;
None be honest, and a knave.

Fettered art thou, Tyranny,
 By whatever name disguised.
Never was a tyrant free.

Terrible the tyranny
 Beauteous Italy deforms.
Are her trembling tyrants free?

Spiritual tyranny
 Reigns in grand, historic Rome.
Are its priests than dupes more free?

Serfdom's cruel tyranny
 Keeps degraded Russia low.
Is her haughty despot free?

And that Southern tyranny,
 Making human beings things--
Are the blood-stained masters free?

And their mobs' wild tyranny,
 Silencing all noble speech--
Slaves are that mobocracy.

Fettered art thou, Tyranny,
 Boast of freedom as thou wilt.
Tyrants never can be free.

Tenterden, (Kent,) England.  JANE ASHBY.

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For the Liberator.

OUR WILLIE.

Our Willie is a little boy,
 Not yet quite four years old,
And yet his doating parents think
 His worth cannot be told.

They contemplate his little form
 As none but parents can,
And hope their only prattling boy
 May grow an honest man.

He wears his little, little pants,
 And velvet jacket red,
And glossy ringlets darkly curl
 Their wealth about his head.

His sparkling eyes like diamonds shine,
 And show a heart of glee,--
A spirit full of joy within,
 Exultant, light and free. 

Love dances joyous in his face,
 And lights it with a smile,
And all its features indicate
 A heart all free from guile.

Forever may that face, dear boy, 
 Be radiant all with love,
Through all thy pilgrimage on earth,
 And in the spheres above.

Springfield, Mass.   E.W.T.

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For the Liberator.

OH! TEACH THY SOUL ITS POWER.

The diamond on thy brow may flash, thy glittering gold may lure;
But, maiden, in thy hour of pride, know that thy soul is poor;
For by that heartless glance I know, and by that haughty mien,
There is a wondrous world of light and joy thou hast not seen.
Fed only by that flattering crowd, thy soul is poor and blind,
And cannot see the glorious life God made for thee to find.
Look up--the stars will give thee light, and every little flower
Will tell thee what a world is thine--oh, teach thy soul its power;
And nearer, nearer to thy God a grand new life will wake,
A life so rich and beautiful, in morning light will break:
And the splendor of thy jewelled brow will gladden every sight,
When from thy soul-lit eyes shall flash a grander living light.        KATE.

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LOVE IN ALL SEASONS.

 BY CHARLES MACKAY.

I.

I'll love my Love in the days of Spring,
And for her sake, each living thing.
We gathere garlands by the way,
We pluck the blooms of the merry May, 
We roam the woods, we trace the streams,
Our waking thoughts are bright as dreams;
No bee on the blossom, no lark in the sky,
Is happier than my Love and I!

II.

I'll love my Love in the Summer time,
Our years shall ripen to their prime; 
We'll sit in the shade a little more,
Beneath the elm-tree at the door;
We'll watch with joy the children run,
We'll give the world our benison:
No bird in its nest on the tree-top high
Shall be so blithe as my Love and I!

III.

I'll love my Love in the Autumn eves; 
We'll gather in our barley sheaves;
We'll reap our corn, we'll press our vine,
We'll hear on the hills our lowing kine;
We'll pluck our peaches from the wall,
We'll give our friends a festival:
There is no joy the world can buy
That we shall not share--my love and I!

IV.

I'll love my love in the Winter cold--
So shall our tale of life be told; 
We'll sit together by the hearth,
Spectators of a younger mirth;
And, as the children come and go,
We'll dwell in the light where their faces glow;
We'll live in love, and loving die,
And still love on, my Love and I!

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CHEERFULNESS TAUGHT BY REASON.

by ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING.

I think we are too ready with complaint
 In this fair world of God's.  Had we no hope
 Indeed beyond the zenith and the slope
Of yon gray blank of sky, we might be faint
To muse upon eternity's constraint
 Round our aspirant souls.  But since the scope
 Must widen early, is it well to droop,
For a few days consumed in loss and taint?
 O, pusillanimous Heart, be comforted,
And like a cheerful traveller take the road,
 Singing beside the hedge.  What if the bread
Be bitter in thine inn, and thou unshod
 To meet the flints?  At least it may be said,
'Because the way is SHORT, I thank thee, God!'

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CHEERFULNESS.

There is no gloom on earth, for God above
   Chastens in love;
Transmuting sorrows into golden joy,
   Free from alloy;
His dearesst attribute is still to bless,
And man's most welcome hymn is graeful cheerful-
  ness.        HORACE SMITH.

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The Liberator.
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NOTES BY THE WAY--No. III.

PEPPERELL, Feb. 18, 1857.

FRIEND MAY:

Since my last, dated at Nashua, I have lectured once in Milford, once at Danforth Corner, and twice in Pepperell.  Milford is claimed as the most anti-slavery town in New Hampshire, and judging from the little I saw of other places, I should be disposed to yield it the palm.  All this, however, may not be saying very much, compared with what ought to be true of every community.  Because a place is strongly Republican, it does not follow, as a necessary consequence, that there is very much real love of man in the hearts of the people, or any very deep-seated attachment to the cause of equal justice and universal freedom.  How much there is in Milford may be inferred from the fact that the society which is thought to contain the most anti-slavery feeling refused us the use of its church on a Sunday evening, when they were not going to occupy it themselves.  Probably the minister, who has always been [[italics]] Hidden [[\italics]] on the slavery question, had his full share of influence in the matter, as I was informed that a majority of the committee were in favor of opening the house.  The friends of freedom, however, were determined not to be baulked, and procured the Town Hall, where we held a meeting on a Tuesday evening.  A goodly number was present, including the [[italics]] few [[\italics]] noble and self-sacrificing friends of immediate and unconditional emancipation, a large number of Republicans, of every stripe and hue, from those who are ready to 'let the Union slide,' who say the slave would be justified in cutting his master's throat, and that, in case of an insurrection, [[italics]] they [[\italics]] would declare the masters of the aggressors, and act accordingly, down to those who apologize for oppressors, vindicate the Constitution, with all its compromises, sustain the Union, with all its abominations, and justify the political demagogues of the Republican party in all their concessions to the Slave Power,--with a few bogus Democrats who support the abominations of Cushing, Pierce and Co., and are ever ready to do the bidding of their masters, and quite a sprinkling of rowdies, who belong to no party in particular, but are always sure to go for [[italics]] slavery [[\italics]] and [[italics]] rum. [[\italics]]

The pro-slavery character of the American Church was clearly shown from its own records, and the testimony of its own accredited organs; but, strange to say, in all that large audience, no one was found so poor as to do it reverence.  But, when we came to the compromises of the Constitution, the sinfulness of sustaining the Union, and, above all, the rottenness and heartlessness of the Republican party, half a score of sturdy politicians came to the rescue.  At first, any remark, however heartless and brutal, which was aimed at the poor bondman of his advocates, elicited great applause, and for a time it seemed as though the meeting would break up in disorder and confusion.  This, remember, was in the boasted seat of Republicanism!  After a little time, however, better feelings seemed to get the ascendancy over the lower passions, and for the last hour, we had as quiet and orderly an audience as any man could wish to address,--save it was thought by some that the Republicans monopolized more than their share of the time.  Of this, however, I think no one ought to complain, as they had the hard side of the question to defend, and frequently found it necessary to go back and take up their first statements, and make new ones.  If there were not so much to sadden the heart in the fact that so large a portion of the political world have no fixed principles of right and wrong, it would have been ludicrous to see how virtue and vice are made to shift places as though they were synonymous terms.  These politicians have become so evasive and non-committal that they remind one of the Irishman's flea,--when you put your finger upon him, he is not there.

From Milford, I went to Danforth's Corner.  Here we held one meeting, in a school-house, which was well attended.  I preached the Gospel of Disunion, circulated some tracts, and got one subscriber to THE LIBERATOR.  I found but [[italics]] one [[/italics]] person in the district who is ready to advocate the doctrine of equal and impartial justice to the colored man, but [[italics]] all [[/italics]] seemed willing and anxious to hear the glad tidings which we preach.

Leaving Danforth's Corner, I next brought up at Hollis.  This is a hard place for all true reformers.  The politicians have been so long trodden in the dust by intriguing demagogues, and the members of the religious organizations are so completely under the thumb of the clergy, that very little free thought or manly action can be expected.  I went round among the Republicans, and asked them to aid me in getting up an anti-slavery meeting; but not one could I find who was willing to take any responsibility in the matter.  Some of them told me that they did not want a meeting, that they were on the eve of a State election, and there must be no 'agitation'!  As though truth had any thing to fear from free discussion!  But many of these pseudo free soilers are just coming out of the fog of sham democracy, and can hardly, as yet, be said to be born into the kingdom of Republicanism, which itself is a kingdom of darkness.  But there is some hope even of Hollis.  One of the ministers of the place was driven from his parish last fall, because he voted the Republican ticket.  This so incensed the more liberal portion of his supporters, that they refused to pay any other man.  The result will probably be the death of a Hunker society.  Let us thank God, and take courage!

While in Pepperell, the travelling was exceedingly unfavorable, and it was next to impossible for persons to go far to attend a meeting of any kind.  I held two meetings in school-houses in different parts of the town.  They were thinly attended.  How it would have been under more favorable circumstances I am unable to say.  I judge, however, that the tide of Anti-Slavery sentiment has not risen higher than free soil.

Here my labors in the Anti-Slavery field cease for a time.  When the ways are settled, I may make another effort to save some from the impending doom which must ere long overwhelm a guilty nation.  Until then, adieu!

COLPORTEUR.

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THE UNION.

LAKEPORT, N.Y., Feb. 21, 1857.

MR. GARRISON:

DEAR SIR,--I desire to say a few words, through the columns of THE LIBERATOR, in reference to the Disunion Convention lately held in Worcester, Mass.

However absurd and impracticable it may seem to certain Union-savers and politicians who desire office more than the triumph of principle, I for one am bold to say, that unless freedom shall become nationalized, and slavery sectionalized, (as I think was the intention of the framers of the Constitution,) the Union should and will be dissolved.  I do not look upon the Union as a 'conclusion,' unless it can be made to foster the spirit of liberty, instead of slavery, aristocracy and despotism.  Union! 'we sicken at the name,' and pronounce it, practically, a splendid failure.  Our government is a failure, because it has failed to secure that for which it was adopted.  Originally intended to secure and keep inviolate the inalienable rights of man, and promote universal liberty, it worked well till those by whom it was brought into existence were no more.  While Jefferson lived, the great principle contained in the Declaration of Independence, the self-evident truth, that 'all men were created equal,' was respected, and regarded as a great political principle, the existence of which was necessary to the basis of every Republican government.  That principle, instead of being confirmed by the present generation, and adopted as a truth that admits of no contradiction, has in some degree been repudiated.  In
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the National Capitol it has been characterised as a 'self-evident lie,' and scoffed at by those who love slavery more than freedom.  But it has not been [[italics]] generally [[/italics]] repudiated, nor have the majority turned against it.

The Republican party, though more conservative than its name indicates, has the welfare of this truth, I believe, thoroughly at heart.  I candidly believe that Seward, Sumner, Wilson, Chase, Giddings, and others whom I might mention, are champions and pioneers in a cause that must ultimately lead to freedom.  They might perhaps (and perhaps properly) go further, and be more ultra in their views.  But, conceding as they do the constitutionality of slavery in the States where it exists, they could not consistently.  I would not presume to cast any imputations upon their motives, or call their sincerity in question.  As to their course on the slavery question, I believe they are all well meaning men, as well as wise statesmen, and will do their utmost to exterminate slavery from the land.  But they propose to do it through peaceful and graduated processes, rather than by violence and disunion.  And such I rather think is the true position.  We should remain in the union and preserve our Constitution intact, not for the purpose of using our influence more effectually against it.  To be sure, it would be unwise to set the Union down as a 'finality,' unless it could be made to subserve the ends of justice, as well as humanity.  Parchments should never be exalted above principles, nor forms above substance.  Governments, as well as Constitutions, are but the creatures of man, and by him may be abolished or sustained at pleasure.  Laws as well as constitutions should embody the spirit of their age, or else they are useless and ineffective.  What shall we say of the Constitution of the United States?  Shall we condemn it, and characterize it as 'a covenant with death, and an agreement with hell'?  No, I think not; at least, at present.  Let us strive a little longer to vindicate the Constitution from the false interpretations put upon it by Southern statesmen and Northern doughfaces, ere we throw it away as a thing only worthy our disdain.  I believe this government contains within itself the elements necessary for its own political regeneration.  These elements exist in the hearts of the people, and in due time will bring forth effects that will regenerate the government.

Shall we say, in the language of Lamartine, 'God help our humanity, for man cannot'?  Certainly, we should invoke God's blessing upon our efforts for freedom, but in so doing, we should not abjure human means and instrumentalities.  We should still rely upon man, and still appeal to the nobler instincts of humanity; for God blesses only those who make efforts.  Our Southern brethren should have our sympathy and our help in the great work of reformation.  If we cut ourselves off from them by separation, our influence will in a great degree be lost.  They will take the means of perpetuating slavery within themselves, and defy the world.  The South will organize a great slaveholding empire, and eternize slavery the natural and normal condition of the laboring classes.  Thus, instead of abolishing slavery in the South by separation, we would fortify it, and render it invulnerable.  I think the time has not come when we should 'let the Union slide.'  When all Northern efforts shall have failed to establish the supremacy of freedom, then will the time have come--not before.  But we never can commence too early to agitate for the truth.     Yours, respectfully,
WELCOME O. SPENCER.

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[[bold]] DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION. [[/bold]]

HARVARD, March 3d, 1857.

DEAR LIBERATOR:

To know exactly what we want is a great help towards obtaining it.  Defining and discriminating are important signs and means of progress.  Do we want the [[italics]] Union [[/italics]] to be dissolved, or the [[italics]] principles [[/italics]] upon which it was formed?  Do we want two separate Republics made out of the United States, or the United States made into one free government?  Is the issue between North and South, or between Freedom and Slavery?  Is our conflict a geographical disunion or a moral disunion?  Do we mean by the Union, the Constitution and Government of the United States, as at present organized and administered, or several States and territories under one general government?
 
We answer for ourselves, that we want the principles of the Union dissolved, the covenant with unrighteousness dissolved.  We want the people of the United States, including blacks and whites, to provide themselves with a free Constitution and Government.  We want no issue between North and South, but between Freedom and Slavery.  Our conflict is a moral, not a geographical one; and we go for a moral, and not a geographical disunion.

We regard the present Constitution and Government of the United States not right in a moral point of view, and therefore we are for righting them.  We hold no allegiance to them as supreme.  We mean, with God's assistance, to subvert them, not by the sword nor by the ballot-box, but by telling the truth and suffering the consequences.

We have no quarrel with the South nor with Southerners, any further than they please to identify themselves with oppression; and we have as [[italics]] much [[/italics]] battle with North and with Northerners as [[italics]] they [[/italics]] please to identify themselves with oppression.  We are willing to be called rebels, and to be hung for treason, rather than pay allegiance to the United States supremacy,

Still, we love the South; we love our whole country; we love all mankind; and we take the course of opposition to the [[italics]] principles [[/italics]] of the Union that we do take, because we love the Right, and love our fellow-men.

WILLIAM G. BABCOCK.

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[[bold]] THE TOWER OF BABEL. [[/bold]]

A correspondent, for whose whole communication we have not room, after commenting on the assumption lately made of a discovery of the ruins of the 'tower of Babel,' and the extraordinary deductions made by the theological newspapers from this assumed fact, quotes the following remarkable specimen of logic from a letter in the Boston [[italics]] Traveller [[/italics]], narrating the above-mentioned 'discovery':--

'There is a providence to be traced in these discoveries.  They serve not only to arouse, but to instruct; they not only gratify the curiosity, [[italics]] but establish beyond all doubt and controversy the veracity and inspiration of the Sacred Records.' [[/italics]]

Our correspondent makes the following pertinent inquiries:--

Does the truth of God require a miracle to support it?  Do the Golden Rule and the precept to 'do justly, love mercy, and walk humbly with God,' require historical evidence, or a miracle, to attest their goodness and truth?

Would God teach men to abhor idolatry, cruelty and murder,by commanding the indiscriminate slaughter of idolatrous nations, men, women and children?  Would he teach them truth, equity and justice, by falsehood, rapine and wholesale plunder?

Does the fact that the Jews are a historical people, and that the Bible has a historical basis, prove that all its miraculous narratives are true, and that the laws it contains all emanated from God?

Would the discovery, after the lapse of a thousand years, of the ruins of a city in Illinois, or the ruins of another at Salt Lake, built by the Mormons, prove that the Book of Mormon was inspired, and that Joe Smith was a true prophet?

Has the fact, that St. Patrick is a real historical personage, as much so as Noah, Abraham, or Moses, that he introduced Christianity into Ireland as certainly as Moses was the lawgiver of the Jews, that monuments of his power and greatness among the
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Irish people still remain, and that a day is observed in celebration of his memory, prove that the miracles recorded of him are true, that a book entitled, 'The Life of St. Patrick,' is a true account of him, and that he really wrought the miracles it records?

Finally, will the discovery of the Tower of Babel, if true, confirm the miracle of the confusion of tongues, and assign the true cause of the dispersion of mankind over the earth, and that the true origin of the diversity of languages among mankind is to be traced to that event?
INQUIRER.

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[[bold]] FAITHFUL PREACHING IN PLYMOUTH [[/bold]]
PLYMOUTH, March 2, 1857.

DEAR MR. GARRISON:

Yesterday afternoon, (Sunday,March 1st,) I attended the meeting at the Universalist Church, and was much pleased with the sermon by the pastor, Rev. R. Tomlinson.  His subject was 'The Pulpit and Slavery,' and the sermon was truly a stern rebuke to clergymen and professors of religion who are not active in efforts to remove this gigantic evil, and who do not battle (with the weapons of love) the false and pernicious doctrines sought to be inculcated by Northern religionists and politicians, of the divine authority of slavery.  He examined many points connected with the subject, and advanced truly liberal and enlightened views on them all.  There can be no doubt but that great good will result from his teachings.  His reasoning was sound--his sentiments were benevolent and Christian--his utterances bold, and easily to be understood--his denunciations severe but just--his conclusion irresistibly true.  May others imitate his excellent example!

Yours, for impartial liberty,
WM. H. BARTLETT.

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[[bold]] SPIRITUAL PROSPECTS OF BOSTON. [[/bold]]

The Boston correspondent of the [[italics]] Journal of Commerce [[/italics]] (understood to be Rev. Hubbard Winslow) has lately published in that paper the following ample certificate of the good and regular hunkerism of a new Boston minister:

'The Rev. Jacob M. Manning, now pastor of a Congregational church in the neighboring town of Medford, has received and accepted a call to become a colleague pastor with the Rev. Dr. Blagden of the Old South Church in this city.  Mr. Manning's antecedents are quite favorable, and give his friends great reason to hope, that his residence among us will not only be a blessing to the Old South congregation, but to the city of Boston, and to the cause of divine truth.  He maintained a high rank as a scholar both at Amherst College and at Andover Theological Seminary, and during his three years' experience as a settled pastor, has acquired such a reputation as to have made him worthy, in the opinion of those who know him best, of the distinguished position to which he has just been called.  He will find in Dr. Blagden a model man with whom to labor as co-pastor.  It may be added, that Dr. B. is in the prime of life and usefulness, and that the services of an assistant minister were only required by the new undertaking of the parish to build up a church enterprise in a destitute portion of the city.'

The same eminent saint thus rebukes (in love) the Manchester clergymen who recently protested against the engagement of Theodore Parker as a Lyceum lecturer:

'You have printed in your columns a protest signed by several clergymen of the city of Manchester, N. H., against the admission of Theodore Parker as one of the lecturers before the Lyceum of that city.  It was, perhaps, well, that those ministers should have remonstrated as they did.  It has occurred to me, however, that their protest would have been more influential (it did not prevail with the directors of the Lyceum) if they had all been known as men who preach nothing but the gospel of Jesus Christ, as men who promote reform only on the clearly revealed principles of Revelation--and as ministers of whom it could be said, that both in the pulpit and out of it, their principles and their lives are entirely opposed to those of Theodore Parker.  And it is not worthy of particular inquiry whether ministers who are substantially evangelical and consistent may not lose much of their moral power to meet and to refute Parkerism, if they on any occasion preach as he does in reference to their country and its rulers and laws, instead of preaching just as the Bible instructs them to preach; and if they, for any pretext, and under the pressure of any emergency, adopt a single principle of Parker to wage war against any evil, or to advance any good?  If Parkerism is erroneous as a system of morals and religion, it is altogether wrong, and those who would resist him and it triumphantly must not have even a grain of him or his in their system of faith and practice.

Besides, is it not true that if evangelical ministers preach a grain or two of error, and declare a little truth on subjects on which they were not ordained to preach at all, that the people who hear them will soon desire to hear several grains of error along with the truth, and much preaching that is foreign to the designs of the pulpit, so that if their own clergymen will not indulge them with it, they will send for Theodore Parker, and thus the little leaven of error leavens a mass of mind?  So much may be said, without any intimation that the ministry of Manchester is not as good or even better than the average ministry of New England.'

If you say A, you must say B, says the old fox.  Therefore ignore the whole alphabet of reform.  Touch not, taste not, handle not, favor not anything which tends to change the established order of things, except in the single point of converting men, as fast as you can according to Blagden and Adams, which is also according to slavery.    C. K. W.

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AN INFIDEL REBUKED.  An infidel boasting, in a published letter, that he had raised two acres of 'Sunday corn,' which he intended to devote to the purchase of infidel books, adds:  'All the work done on it was done on Sunday, and it will yield some seventy bushels to the acre, so I don't see but that Nature or Providence has smiled upon my Sunday work, however the priests or the Bible may say that work done on that day never prospers.  My corn tells another story.'  To this the editor of an agricultural paper replies:  'If the author of this shallow nonsense had read the Bible half as much as had read the works of its opponents, he would have known the great Ruler of the Universe does not always square up his accounts with mankind in the month of October.'

We cut the above from the Salem [[italics]] Observer [[/italics]], under the head 'Moral and Religious.'  We add to it, as a fitting accompaniment under the same head, that neither the infidel nor the editor of the agricultural paper aforesaid seems to have read the Bible very [[italics]] intelligently [[/italics]].  If they will examine it again, using their own eyes, instead of either infidel's or minister's spectacles, they will see that not the slightest intimation is given [[italics]] in that book [[/italics]], that the Great Ruler of the universe has, or ever had, the slightest objection to men's raising corn on Sundays.  C.K.W.

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[[bold]] THE RIGHTS OF WOMAN. [[/bold]]

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From the Detroit Daily Tribune.

[[bold]] THE STATE UNIVERSITY FREE TO WOMAN AS WELL AS MAN. [[/bold]]

We printed yesterday a petition sent form this city relative to a Female College to be situated at Ann Arbor, and to be under the control of the Regents of the University, tuition free.

The following report from President FAIRFIELD, of Hillsdale College, the Senator from the Hillsdale District, was made on a petition of Wm. WILEY, T. B. FARNSWORTH and 77 other citizens of Detroit, praying that the Michigan University may be opened to all, without distinction of sex.

The adoption of this plan would make ample provision for higher female education--at least so far as any one Institution can thus provide.  And it would do so with but little additional expense.  The same Board of Instruction, with the exception of one or two female teachers to whom would be intrusted the particular charge of that Department, would equally meet the demands of both sexes.  The classes at the University are not so crowded, nor will they be probably for many years to come, that the addition of ten or twenty young ladies to either of them, would render them inconveniently large, or make a division of them necessary.  And the studies required for vigorous and complete intellectual development are substantially the same for both male and female.
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That the highest advantage should be secured for the education of woman, is a proposition that at this day and before this Senate, it would be quite superfluous to defend by argument.  Experience has abundantly shown that, in almost all of the studies of the college course--languages--rhetoric--composition--history--natural sciences--moral philosophy and criticism, woman is fully equal of the sterner sex.  In mathematics and mental philosophy, she may have slightly the disadvantage; but even in these departments her success has been honorable in a high degree.  We have a few ladies even in Michigan, whose scholarship in most of these departments would fit them to adorn a professorship in our University itself.  The old doctrine of the inferiority of woman's intellect is rapidly finding its place among the exploded dogmas of the middle ages.  It were only necessary to mark the trial of  the experiment for successive years through all the course of college study, to be fully dispossessed of the remnant of so groundless an assumption.

And your committee believe, that the plan of educating the sexes jointly, which is contemplated in the petition before us, would secure to woman a much more thorough and scholarly training than is likely to be furnished upon any other system.  Female seminaries--those which are so exclusively--are too often--not to say generally--much less rigid in their system of mental discipline, and much less attended in their course of study, than Colleges which are established upon the ordinary basis.

And besides, the joint education of both sexes has various other advantages, which cannot be so well secured by separate institutions exclusively for either.  There is a social education as well as intellectual.  And this, though of inferior importance, is not to be neglected.

It is some times objected, by such as have not observed the practical working of the system, and who have not well studied the intricacies of human nature, that such a joint education would be adverse to the cultivation of the best manners; and especially to the highest refinement of the female character.  But no objection could be more entirely unfounded.  In the daily meeting and mingling of sexes in the recitation room and elsewhere, under the judicious regulations which the wisdom of a college faculty would impose, the habit of good behavior which ordinarily characterizes man in the presence of woman becomes fixed and permanent; while in College halls, away from their presence and influence, roughness and coarseness of behavior are frequently induced, that never would appear--and never do appear in Literary society where both sexes are found.  Such is the genial and refining influence which is naturally exerted upon the young men connected with those higher Institutions to which ladies are admitted.

But is not this a gain to the young man, at the expense of that refinement and delicacy which are the charm of the female character?  Far otherwise.  Affectation is not refinement.  A dignified case and naturalness of manners is the highest attainment in the social circle.  And more than this.  We give to woman her full credit for the softening and harmonizing influence which her presence exerts.  But the influence, in truth, is reciprocal.  And not unfrequently there is a rudeness in female Seminaries, or in those circles where young ladies gather alone, that disappears entirely in the presence of well-bred men.  The influence of the association is, in this respect, equally happy upon both.

Every observer has noted the fact--out of which has grown an oft repeated remark--that it is a misfortune to any family of brothers to be without a sister's influence; and equally that it is a misfortune to a family of sisters, in which there is no brother.  But according to the theory of some upon this subject of education, it were a manifest mistake of the author of human society, that all families were not arranged upon the judicious plan of separating entirely the different sexes.

But is not the moral effect of the proposed arrangement a ground of objection to it?  Exactly the opposite.  The daily meeting of noble and pure-minded young ladies, engaged in the elevated and elevating pursuits of science--just such as will, with very rare exceptions, be found within college walls--is a stronger defence to any young man against the temptations to seduction, and to vice and immorality, than all the didactic treatises on moral reform that were ever penned.  That the separation of the sexes is not conducive to the highest degree of social morality, is abundantly demonstrated by the entire history of oriental society.

Nor again does such an arrangement operate to divest from the vigorous and protracted pursuit of science, as some theorists have been ready to object.  There are some young men that are fated to be the victims of impulse--that are mad for a settlement, before their beard is grown; and even the braying of which Solomon speaks would not cure them of their folly.  Let them haste to their gaol--there is no delivering them.  If they did not meet some 'Ducinea del Toboso' in College, they would elsewhere.

But we speak of general facts and general laws; and they are not to be set aside by exceptional cases.  It is the young man that is shut out from female society, confined within the college walls, and but now and then, Aladdin like, gets a glimpse of the half-covered face (though this oriental figure does not very well apply to modern American fashions,) of some bewitching daughter of Eve, that is smitten; and forthwith deems himself a ruined man, if something is not done; and the partnership is closed up with the utmost dispatch.  But were this same young man--a freshman or a sophomore perhaps--to meet this same young lady and a dozen others from week to week in the recitation room, it would become a more matter-of-fact sort of thing; and he would in all probability take a more sober view of life and its relations.  Experience has abundantly proved that there are fewer hasty settlements--fewer premature and troublesome engagements--fewer runaway matches--fewer crazy young men--fewer headlong plunges into the matrimonial sea, in colleges where the joint education of the sexes prevails, than elsewhere.  And that in general the discipline and government of such institutions are more easy and more effective than under the exclusive system.

But why argue in any of its aspects the question of joint education?  Already the system prevails in Academics, and Seminaries, and Norman Schools.  And why not in Colleges?  If it is safe and expedient to educate both sexes together during that period in which there is most of impulse and volatility--the period at which these other institutions throw open their doors to all, irrespective of sex--it certainly cannot be less safe or less wise to open the doors of the College to those more advanced and more mature.  But this is not an experiment.  There are already not less than half a score of Colleges of high respectability in different parts of the country, where doors are open to all, and with the happiest results.  Why may not the College Department and Scientific School of the Michigan University be equally open?--and thus the vexed question of a Female College, to be endorsed and sustained by the State, be put at rest.  A small additional expense would secure the result, and secure it more effectually than by any other means which your committee can conceive to be really practicable.  The details of the arrangement they do not propose to enter into.  That will be left for the Regents, if they deem our recommendation worthy of consideration.

Besides the College Department, there is connected with the University a Medical Department.  We know of no effectual reason why that should not be equally open to all.  The first Medical Colleges of the country have been thus opened--and the adaptation of woman to the medical profession, if she chooses to enter it, [[italics]] at least within certain limits, [[/italics]] will be universally conceded.  Your committee hope that the prayer of the petitioners will be granted; and to that effect we report the accompanying joint resolution, commending the whole subject to the candid consideration of discreet men who have been or may hereafter be chosen to conduct the affairs of one of the noblest educational institutions of the country--THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN.

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FEMALE MEDICAL COLLEGE.

The Eight Annual Commencement of the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, took place at three o'clock on Saturday afternoon, at Concert Hall.  We were gratified to see the Hall crowded to its utmost capacity, and still more gratified to see at least three-fourths of the audience ladies.  It evinces a growing interest in female physicians, among that class who, we regret to say, are the most bitter, as a class, against any improvement in the condition of women.

The exercises were opened by the President, Professor Charles D. Cleveland; who, by way of explaining a portion of the duties he was about to assume, stated the significant fact that he had called on nine different clergymen, inviting them to attend and open the proceedings with a prayer, but they had [[italics]] all found excuses for declining. [[/italics]]  He therefore
[[/column 5]]

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assumed that duty himself, and performed that solemn ceremony quite as acceptably, we presume, as any of the declining clergymen.

After the prayer, the President proceeded (in the foolish fashion of using the Latin instead of the English language) to confer the degrees of Doctor of Medicine on the following graduates:--Mrs. Elizabeth P. Baugh, Miss Hannah H. Brinton, Miss Susannah Hayhurst, Miss Mary J. Scarlet, Miss Phoebe Wilson, Pa., Miss Orie R. Moon, Va., Mrs. Lucy M. Petersilia, N.C.

The Valedictory address was delivered by Professor Edwin Fussel, and was admirably calculated to inspire confidence in the soundness of the teachings and ability of the Professors of that institution.  The benediction was pronounced by Rev. Mr. Johnson, after which the lady graduates received the congratulations of numerous friends, and the audience dispersed.--[[italics]] Philad. Woman's Rights Advocate. [[/italics]]

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[[image - Appears to be an advertisement.  AYER'S in the background with man mixing ingredients in an apothecary with many glass jars and tubes.  The man is sitting on a box that says AYER'S CHERRY PECTORAL. [[/image]]

CATHARTIC PILLS

OPERATE by their powerful influence on the internal viscera to purify the blood and stimulate it into health action.  They remove the obstructions of the stomach, bowels, liver, and other organs of the body, and, by restoring their irregular action to health, correct, wherever they exist, such derangements as are the first causes of disease.  An extensive trial of their virtues, by Professors, Physicians, and Patients, has shown cures of dangerous diseases almost beyond belief, were they not substantiated by persons of such exalted position and character as to forbid the suspicion of untruth.  Their certificates are published in my American Almanac, which the Agents below named are pleased to furnish free to all inquiring.

Annexed we give [[italics]] Directions [[/italics]] for their use in the complaints which they have been found to cure.

FOR COSTIVENESS. -- Take one or two pills, or such quantity as to gently move the bowels.  Costiveness is frequently the aggravating cause of PILES, and the cure of one complaint is the cure of both.  No person can feel well while under a costive habit of body.  Hence it should be, as it can be, promptly relieved.

FOR DYSPEPSIA, which is sometimes the cause of [[italics]] Costiveness, [[/italics]] and always uncomfortable, take mild doses -- from one to four -- to stimulate the stomach and liver into healthy action.  They will do it, and the [[italics]] heartburn, bodyburn, and soulburn [[/italics]] of dyspepsia will rapidly disappear.  When it is gone, don't forget what cured you.

FOR A FOUL STOMACH, or [[italics]] Morbid Inaction of the Bowels, [[/italics]] which produces general depression of the spirits and bad health, take from four to eight Pills at first, and smaller doses afterwards, until activity and strength are restored to the system.

FOR NERVOUSNESS, SICK HEADACHE, NAUSEA, [[italics]] Pain in the Stomach, Back, or Side, [[/italics]] take four to eight pills on going to bed.  If they do not operate sufficiently, take more the next day until they do.  These complaints will be swept out from the system.  Don't wear these and their kindred disorders because your stomach is foul.

FOR SCROFULA, ERYSIPELAS, [[italics]] and all diseases of the Skin, [[/italics]] take the Pills freely and frequently, to keep the bowels open.  The eruptions will generally soon begin to diminish and disappear.  Many dreadful ulcers and sores have been healed up by the purging and purifying effect of these Pills, and some disgusting diseases, which seemed to saturate the whole system, have completely yielded to their influence, leaving the sufferer in perfect health.  Patients! your duty to society forbids that you should parade yourself around the world covered with pimples, blotches, ulcers, sores, and all or any of the unclean diseases of the skin, because your system wants cleansing.

TO PURIFY THE BLOOD, they are the best medicine ever discovered.  They should be taken freely and frequently, and the impurities which sow the seeds of incurable diseases will be swept out of the system like chaff before the wind.  By this property they do as much good in preventing sickness as by the remarkable cures which they are making every where.

LIVER COMPLAINT, JAUNDICE, [[italics]] and all Bilious Affections [[/italics]] arise from some derangement -- either torpidity, congestion, or obstructions of the Liver.  Torpidity and congestion vitiate the bile, and render it unfit for digestion.  This is disastrous to the health, and the constitution is frequently undermined by no other cause.  Indigestion is the symptom.  Obstruction of the duct which empties the bile into the stomach causes the bile to overflow into the blood.  This produces Jaundice, with a long and dangerous train of evils.  Costiveness, or alternately, costiveness and diarrhoea, prevails.  Feverish symptoms, languor, low spirits, weariness, restlessness, and melancholy, with sometimes inability to sleep, and sometimes great drowsiness; sometimes there is severe pain in the side;  the skin and the white of the eyes become a greenish yellow; the stomach acid; the bowels sore to the touch; the whole system irritable, with a tendency to fever, which may turn to bilious fever, bilious colic, bilious diarrhoea, dysentery, &c.  A medium dose of three or four pills taken at night, followed by two or three in the morning, and repeated a few days, will remove the cause of these troubles.  It is wicked to suffer such pains when you can cure them for 25 cents.

RHEUMATISM, GOUT, [[italics]] and all Inflammatory Fevers [[/italics]] are rapidly cured by the purifying effects of these Pills upon the blood and the stimulus which they afford to the vital principle of Life.  For these and all kindred complaints they should be taken in mild doses, to move the bowels gently, but freely.

As a DINNER PILL, this is both agreeable and useful.  No pill can be made more pleasant to take, and certainly none has been made more effectual to the purpose for which a dinner pill is employed.

PREPARED BY
[[bold]][[larger font]]
J. C. AYER,
Practical and Analytical Chemist,
L O W E L L,  M A S S . ,
[[/bold]][[/larger font]]
AND SOLD BY

THEODORE METCALF & CO.,    }
BREWER, STEVENS & CUSHING, } [[italics]] Boston; [[/italics]]

BROWN & PRICE, [[italics]] Salem; [[/italics]]

H. H. HAY, [[italics]] Portland; [[/italics]]

J. N. MORTON & CO., [[italics]] Concord, N. H.; [[/italics]]

And by Druggists and Dealers in Medicine every where.

[[right align]] D12 6m [[/right align]]

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NEW YORK
Central College.

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This College is situated near McGrawville, in Cortland County, N. Y.  It is at present manifesting gratifying signs of success.  Its Faculty, which has always been considered an able one, continues vigorous, and, as the number of students increases, new Professors are added to the force, by this means rendering the College more effective in the fulfilment of its high and important mission as an educational institution.

It embraces two departments--the Academic and the Collegiate.  Persons are admitted as students irrespective of denominational distinction, color, or sex--a good moral character and a determination to learn being the necessary qualifications.  It is the fixed determination of the friends of this College to make it a model institution--one that shall commend itself to the hearts of patriots and Christians.  It is anti-slavery and anti-sectarian in its character, recognizing and fellowshipping him as a Christian in whom it discovers the spirit and image of Christ.  The most per annum to students does not exceed $140 in the Collegiate and $120 in the Academic department.  There is connected with the College a farm of seventy-five acres, which it is designed shall be used for the development of Agricultural Science, and furnish labor to a considerable extent for those who are entirely dependent on their own efforts for an education.

The Faculty is now engaged in an effort to endow the College, and thus to extend its usefulness.  Since its commencement, it has not been the recipient of any State appropriation, but has subsisted entirely upon the fees from students and the contributions from its friends.

The friends of cheap and liberal education, and especially those who sanction the principle which extends these privileges to all, without distinction of sex, color, or caste, are most respectfully solicited to tender their aid to the Faculty in their praiseworthy effort.

Contributions may be forwarded by mail, or personally, to Mr. WILLIAM HERRIES, Agent for the Faculty, 195 Broadway, N. Y., who will give a receipt for the sum contributed, as also an historical account of the College.

Persons desirous of entering the College as students may procure the necessary information on application to the above source.

March 6.

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[[bold large font]]
Legion of Liberty.
[[/bold large font]]

A NEW edition of this work, (compiled by the late JULIUS R AMES of Albany,) which did so much good service in the anti-slavery contest of former years, has just been published by the AMERICAN ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY.  This edition is larger than any preceding one, and forms a neat volume of 336 pages.

For sale at the Anti-Slavery Offices, 21 Cornhill, Boston; 138 Nassau street, New York; and 31 North Fifth street, Philadelphia.  Price, [[italics]] Fifty cents. [[/italics]]

March 2.
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Transcription Notes:
obscured text found at: http://fair-use.org/the-liberator/1857/03/13/the-liberator-27-11.pdf "Ayers Cherry Pectoral" existed in the 1850's, so I filled out the word in the advertisement.

Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation, and may include culturally sensitive information. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research. For questions or comments regarding sensitive content, access, and use related to this collection, please contact transcribe@si.edu.