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6     OMAHA INDIANS.

hay lands. Raises corn, wheat, potatoes, vegetables. Lives in a tent; bought the tent-cover. Bought tools; received implements from government. Has ponies, cow, pigs, chickens. Supports seven persons. About thirty-two years old. He says:

I have always wished for a title to my land. If the Indians could have title to their lands they would go to work with a will. All the young men who are working for themselves want to have laws like the white men, that justice may be done.

15. Mumba-Douba, Levi John Webster. — Full blood. Has claim No. 237. Broke 8 acres four years ago. Has 16 1/2 acres under cultivation, not including hay lands. Raises corn, wheat, potatoes, vegetables. Planted apple trees and timber. Built log house two years ago; bought some materials, shed, &c. Bought implements, and received from government. Has ponies, cows, chickens. Supports six persons. About thirty-six years old. He says:

I want a title to my land; my changing my dress ought to show that. I love my land. *** I want to have law here, that justice may be done on this reserve.

16. Wa-ho-sha-ga, James Springer.- Full blood. Works on a claim. Broke 7 acres six years ago. Has 12 acres under cultivation, not including hay lands. Raises corn, wheat, potatoes, vegetables. Built log house five years ago; bought materials, sheds. Bought tools; received implements from the government. Has ponies, chickens. Supports thirteen persons. About thirty-seven years old. His certificate of allotment taken away on the transfer of land to the Winnebagoes. Has had misfortunes; served in the United States Army two years and six months, 1864 to 1866; honorably discharged. He says:

I want a title to my land, so that no one can take from my children the land on which I have worked.

17. Umpa-tunga, Big Elk.- Full blood. Works on a claim. Broke 7 acres six years ago. Has 14 acres under cultivation, not including hay lands. Raises wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, garden fruits. Planted apple trees and timber. Built frame-house, paid in stock and money; outbuildings. Has bought implements, and received from government. Has ponies, chickens. Supports two persons. About forty-five years old. His certificate of allotment taken away on the transfer of land to the Winnebagoes. He is descended from an old line of chiefs. Has had many afflictions and been in delicate health. Remarks in appendix.

18. Mah-wah-dah-ne, Henry Cline. — Full blood. Has claim No. 234. Broke 10 acres six years ago. Has 28 acres under cultivation, not including hay lands. Raises corn, wheat, potatoes, vegetables. Planted apple trees, timber. Built frame-house, cost him over $200; outbuildings. Has bought implements; received from the government. Has American horse, ponies, cows, chickens. Supports five persons. About sixty years old. Has suffered severely from fire. He says:

I have taken hold of the plow. I did not know how, but I put in my ponies, and my wife held the reins. * * * There is a party among us in favor of titles. When it first started I was one of them. * * * I want a title to my land. I may never know all the good it will bring, but my children will know. * * * If I were a young man, I would say much; but I am to old to speak much. The reason I have worked so hard is that I wished to set an example to others, that they might see how an old man could work, because he wanted to.

19. Federick Merrick.- Full blood. Has claim No. 325. Broke 4 1/2 acres four years ago. Raises corn, wheat, potatoes, vegetables. Plants apple trees. Has 13 1/2 cultivated. About to build a log house. Has corncrib,

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OMAHA INDIANS.      7          

&c. Has ponies, cow, chickens. Supports five persons. About twenty-eight years old. He says:

I want a title to my land. The Indians are not as strong as the white people. They have not the implements nor strong horses to work with, as the white people have; but, for all that, the Indians want to go on and do all they can on their land. * * * If they had some one to teach them they would learn. Then they would get on faster in their work.

20. Matthew Tyndal.- Full blood. Has claim No. 255. Broke land seven years ago. Has 27 acres under cultivation, not including hay lands. Raises corn, wheat, vegetables, garden fruits. Government built house; he hauled timber. Outbuildings. Bought tools. Received implements from government. Has one American horse, pony, cow and calf. Supports seven persons. About thirty-seven years old. Is captain in United States Indian police service. He has helped his father, worked his land; given him a wagon and ox-team worth $200; also assisted his brother-in-law, who is now prospering. Served in the United States Army two years and six months, 1864 to 1866. Honorably discharged. Worked at the mill. Been on police three years. He says:

It is plain to see that the government owns my land. * * * The Omahas will do better when they have titles to their lands. They will make improvements and plant timber. One reason why they have not made more progress is because they are always worried about this thing [not owning their land]. If they don't get titles to their lands they will not be able to stay here, for the government will take away the land from them. This is why they beg the men in Washington to do all they can to get us titles to our lands.

21. Tah-ha-zhinga, Badger. — Full blood. Has claim No. 226. Broke 12 acres six years ago. Has 15 acres under cultivation, not including hay lands. Raises corn, wheat, potatoes, vegetables. Planted apple and cherry trees. Bought his house; paid by lumber. Sheds. Bought implements. One of the three Indians to contribute $50 toward the reaper received from government. Has ponies, cows, chickens. Supports six persons. About forty-five years old. Farmed years ago. He says:

I am one of the men who want a title. It used to be that I never thought of these things, but now I am always thinking of a title to my land, of law and civilization. * * * I am not a white man, but when I am working I enjoy myself. * * * To go roaming about the country is as hard as working. When one works one gets something for one's trouble, but not when one goes round the country. * * * We will work all the harder when we get titles to our lands.

22. Noah Samis.— Full blood. Works on a claim. Broke 5 acres four years ago. Has 15 acres under cultivation, not including hay lands. Raises corn, wheat. Planted timber. Has lumber ready to build. Lives with father-in-law. Has bought tools. Received implements from government. Supports three persons. About twenty-five years old. He says:

I want a title to my land, that I may have a home surely my own.

23. Joseph Laflesche. — Half French. Has claim No. 225. Broke this land sixteen years ago. Has 45 acres under cultivation, not including hay lands. Raises corn, wheat, potatoes, vegetables, garden fruits. Planted apple and cherry trees; grape-vines. House built by government; he furnished lumber. Outbuildings. Has bought implements. One of three to contribute $50 toward the reaper received from government. Has American horses, ponies, cows, pigs, chickens. Supports eight persons. About fifty-seven years old. One of the remarkable men of tribe. The leader toward citizenship. One of the seven
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