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ordering requiring more skill. To encourage him at this stage of the work, each boy is allowed now and then to make from measure a pair of trousers for himself alone. Next he is put to work on coats; plain uniforms first, then officers' and civilian's clothes. Careful attention is given to making vests, making welt, patch and faced pockets. Between times he is given lessons in the taking of measurements and drafting patterns for trousers in the different styles. 3rd. After he has shown marked improvement and proficiency in making coats, he will take measurements and draft patterns for coat, overcoat, Prince Albert and other styles. First proportional measures are used, actual measurements after that. He is taught the different scales and measures from the square. Special instruction is given the boy in cutting by pattern, how to lay the pattern on the cloth and in cutting trimmings impressing him constantly with the necessity of economy of materials. Then he makes up the coats he cut, for the try on, tries them on himself, drapes them, marks the needed changes and so gets familiar with the different alterations. The drafting is kept up until he is able to draft without further instruction. Much practice is had in civilian work by boys buying cloth in the town and then having it made up in the tailor-shop. From time to time talks are given on estimating materials and cost of suits, the study of fabrics, the purchase of goods and details of running a business successfully and business etiquette. Harness-Making The boy is first instructed how to make a wax end, the twisting, waxing and number of stands used in making it, which vary according to the weight and thickness of the work to be sewed. The awl is explained; how to set it for stabbing holes for the best results. Several strips of leather are tacked together and the boy is shown how to sew. This is kept up till he learns to draw every stitch with uniform tension and distance. Then he is prepared to stitch different parts of the harness. He is taught the names of the different parts as he sews them and by the time he is through with a complete set, he has the names of all the different parts required in a complete set of harness. 30 [[end page]] [[start page]] 2nd. He is taught how to blacken the edges, wipe them smooth with a cloth, crease them with a tool called a creaser. He is shown how to select the right size creaser that is suited best for the straps he is about to crease. Different width straps required different size creasers. 3rd. He is taught how to skive laps, punch buckle holes in the different straps at their proper places, how to select and prepare loop leather, how to fit up and tack the different parts together, place the rings and buckles in their proper places; it is now ready for sewing. 4th. He is taught how to cut out a complete set of harness, the ring lengths and widths, how much to allow for laps, the name of the different parts required to complete a full set of harness. He is also taught when learning to cut harness, the importance of practicing economy; how to select his leather best required for the job he intends to build, what part of the side from which to get the leather, best adapted for that particular part of the harness for durability and service. When the harness are all sewed, he is shown how to dress and finish the work, to put it in a makretable condition, by rubbing the sewing smooth with a tool called a slicker. He blackens th stitches with edge ink, lets it get two-thirds dry, then wipes it with a cloth, sets up his loops and creases them and finishes his harness with gum tragicanth which he applied with a sponge and rubs it with his hands till it gets glossy and smooth. It is now ready to be buckled together for use. 5th. The boy is shown, as he moves along at his trade, how to repair and care for harness, the importance of keeping them clean and well oiled to preserve the wearing qualities. Work benches surround the shop on all sides. There are sixteen sewing horses, besides cutting, fitting and finishing tables. This department is supplied with all the tools essential to a well-equipped shop making hand-made harness. 31
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