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poultry yard, and greenhouse, as well as by actual work done in these departments, it is hoped that the course will prove helpful, practical and beneficial to teacher and pupil alike. The special needs of the Indian on the different reservations have also been provided for. Reading and Literature Reading and language are taught together in the lower grades. Lessons that relate to the life of the pupil at school and at their homes are composed by teacher and pupil. These lessons are written on the blackboard, copied in the tablets and sometimes printed at the school printery. Much of the reading is correlated with shop work, nature study and other subjects. Much drill is necessary in distinct enunciation and articulation. A period a day is devoted to this work. The lessons are thoroughly developed and the pupil is led to understand the subject before he expresses his thought in oral reading. The Indian has many great difficulties in manner and speech to over come and the teach must study the needs of the individuals and work out special devices to help him. In the upper grades a systematic course in English and American classics is followed. Public speaking and rhetorical exercises are encouraged as incentives to reading and distinct speaking. The teachers encourage the use of library and an effort is made to have the pupil acquire a taste for good literature so that he will possess some books and magazines in his own home. History The history of the first four grades consists chiefly of stories told by the teacher about noted men, both Indians and white men. The holidays for the nucleus of much instruction in American history. The first books used by pupils are biographical in style. In grades 5, 6 and 7 text books are used for study and 60 [[end page]] [[start page]] topical recitation in the most important events are expected from the pupils. The work is correlated with geography and literature. An effort is made through lessons of patriotism, the growth of freedom and progress of civilization to instil a love of country and its government into the Indian youth. The future welfare of the Indian demanding that be meet the changed conditions with open mind. He can become a part of this great country only as he becomes a self supporting man and is willing to serve his fellows. A special effort is being made to correlate this subject with Indian History. Civics The junior class (grade 9) takes up the study of Civics. The course is very elementary and largely determined by the needs of the pupils and their peculiar relation to the government. Forms of government are traced beginning with the patriarchal form as found in the Indian tribal life. Necessity of community government for mutual comfort, protection and advancement. Necessity of laws and officers to enforce the same. Town and county government taught thoroughly. The reservation and its relation to the government and also to the individual Indian. The rights, privileges and duties of citizens are emphasized in all upper grade rooms but especially formulated here. Much time is given to the great work done by the departments of our government, especially the Interior Department. The various measures for the development of the resources of our country such as farming, irrigation, forestry, stock raising, good roads and education. Music Music at Carlisle plays no small part in the life and happiness of the boys and girls. It is so universal that it invades almost all social and religious functions, athletics, and military exercises. 61
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