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1. This designation was given the organization formed to prevent the operation of hostile aircraft over a given locality, such as the cities of London or Paris, large cantonment or concentration areas or manufacturing and supply centers.
2. During the European War, air bombardment was very crude, the sights were almost worthless; consequently, accuracy was largely empirical and done by rule of thumb. Under these conditions bombardment had to be conducted by groups or airplanes in the day time when a considerable altitude had to be maintained to escape hostile pursuit aviation, in which case a scatter effect of projectiles was obtained; or bombardment by night at low altitude was restored to. It was though that aircraft could not be seen by other aircraft or by the ground defenses at night.
3. At first the fire of anti-aircraft cannon and machine guns alone was tired, the fire being in the form of a barrage to cover certain areas. As the air is such a large place, it was impossible to keep a sufficient number of projectiles in a given area to give any result. However, it was continued as being the one thing that could be done and as the shooting reassured the

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