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Great Democratic Legislation Today's congressional leadership inherits and partakes the tradition of the great Democratic lawmakers who have given the United States its greatest legislation. The roll of achievements include the following acts, treaties, constitutional amendments and presidential declarations: SECOND CONGRESS, 1791-93 Bill of Rights ∎ THOMAS JEFFERSON, 1801-09 Seventh Congress/Tenth Congress Louisiana Purchase ∎ Twelfth Amendment on election of the President ∎ Establishment of West Point ∎ Non-Intercourse Act, first U.S. foreign affairs legislation ∎ Embargo Acts, designed to keep U.S. out of war in Europe ∎ Cumberland Road authorization ∎ Appropriations for Lewis and Clark Expedition ∎ Abolition of slave trade ∎ JAMES MADISON, 1809-17 Eleventh Congress / Fourteenth Congress Appropriation for a National Road ∎ Macon's Bill, restoring trade with France and Britain ∎ Tariff Act, to protect infant industries ∎ JAMES MONROE, 1817-25 Fifteenth Congress / Eighteenth Congress Treaty with Spain for acquisition of Florida ∎ Permanent statute on design of flag and additions of new states ∎ Monroe Doctrine, ending European colonization of American continents (presidential declaration) ∎ Missouri Compromise ∎ JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, 1825-29 Nineteenth Congress / Twentieth Congress Tariff Act ∎ ANDREW JACKSON, 1829-37 Twenty-first Congress / Twenty-fourth Congress Tariff of 1832 ∎ Compromise Tariff of 1833 ∎ Veto of the United States Bank Charter ∎ Force Bill, prohibiting state nullification ∎ MARTIN VAN BUREN, 1837-41 Twenty-fifth Congress / Twenty-sixth Congress Mail contracts with railroads authorized ∎ Independent Treasury Act ∎ Ten-hour workday on federal contract jobs ∎ JAMES K. POLK, 1845-49 Twenty-ninth Congress / Thirtieth Congress Introduction of postage stamp ∎ Annexation of Texas ∎ Creation of Interior Department ∎ Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ceding California and Southwest to U. S. ∎ Treaty establishing Oregon Boundary ∎ Re-establishment of independent treasure system ∎ FRANKLIN PIECE, 1853-57 Thirty-third Congress / Thirty-fourth Congress Gadsden Purchase, from Mexico adding territory to Arizona and New Mexico ∎ Commodore Perry trade agreement with Japan ∎ JAMES BUCHANAN, 1857-61 Thirty-fifth Congress / Thirty-sixth Congress Tariff reduction ∎ FORTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS, 1881-83 Pendleton Civil Service Act ∎ GROVER CLEVELAND, 1885-89, 1893-97 Forty-ninth Congress / Fiftieth Congress Presidential Succession Act ∎ Interstate Commerce Act ∎ Wilson-Gorman Tariff ∎ Cabinet status for Agriculture Department ∎ [[image - Woodrow Wilson]] WOODROW WILSON, 1913-21 Sixty-third Congress, 1913-15 Underwood tariff reduction and levying of income tax according to wealth ∎ Federal Reserve Act ∎ Establishment of Federal Trade Commission ∎ Clayton Anti-Trust Act ∎ Establishment of Coast Guard ∎ Smith-Lever Act establishing agricultural extension service ∎ Sixty-Fourth Congress, 1915-17 Prohibition of interstate commerce in products of child labor ∎ Adamson Act, eight-hour workday for interstate railway workers ∎ Federal Farm Loan Act ∎ Pure food law enforcement ∎ Federal Highway Act ∎ Smith-Hughes Act for vocational education facilities ∎ Sixty-fifth Congress, 1917-19 Nineteenth Amendment, granting women's suffrage ∎ Inauguration of air mail ∎ Fourteen Points (presidential declaration) ∎ [[image - Calvin Coolidge]]]] Coolidge reassured the public in the wake of the Teapot Dome scandal and was overwhelmingly reelected in 1924. When Coolidge chose not to run in 1928, the nominee was Herbert Hoover. [[image - Hoover pin]] Hoover worked hard to solve the economic problems of the depression by establishing the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and the Home Loan Bank System. He strengthened the Federal Land Banks and the Federal Reserve Board. But Hoover, nevertheless, became the scapegoat of a discontented electorate and lost the 1932 election to Roosevelt. 364
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