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"There Is Every Reason for Believing That America Has Come Back on Ocean to Stay," Declares Head of U. S. Shipping Board 

NEW YORK, March 29.--Edward N. Hurley, chairman of the United States Shipping Board, has rendered a report to his colleagues of the board on the result of his mission abroad to get information on the shipping situation of the world as a result of the war. Mr. Hurley sailed from New York on November 16 and returned to this country on February 11. 
Mr. Hurley is enabled to give a comprehensive review of present conditions brought about by the war and to speak with authority of the prospects for the rehabilitation and upbuilding of the merchant fleets of the principal maritime nations of the world. Mr. Hurley says: "My observations during the three months spent abroad have afforded convincing proof that merchant shipping is now of universal interest. Every nation is alert to the vital bearing of ships upon their future prosperity. 
"But the chief interest centers on whether
America can henceforth maintain her new place upon the seas or whether she must now disband the energies that brought her merchant fleet into being. There is every reason for believing that America has come back upon the ocean --to stay. My observations compel optimism. 
"The war has brought us into a high place as a maritime power. I find the peoples of the world aroused to an intense interest and concern as to the use we are to make of this power now that peace is returned.
"In America you have heard much about British competition. In Great Britain I heard a great deal more about American competition. The expressions of British publicists, newspapers and officials provided no ground for alarm about the future of our shipping.
"The lesson I learned from the British was not to concentrate too much upon the strength of the competition we must 


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meet. For more than a generation we have heard British seamanship and British operating ability lauded. We have shared this admiration. 
"But in our praise we have been prone to ignore the advantage that was on the side of the ships that flew the Union Jack. The truth is that our friends across the water are, for the first time in many years, entering upon a period of actual competition. It is an era regarding which I entertain no misgiving." 
"The obstacles of inexperience will quickly give away before American industrial strength and energy. It is an age in which new conditions will rule and old advantages will become inoperative. It is an age of promise for those who would participate in America's high destiny upon the peaceful seas." 
Mr. Hurley gives a summary of the world, ship tonnage situation. He calls attention to the fact that many vessels were pressed into service, which were considered unfit for service before the war and many others were kept in the service long after they would have been abandoned under normal conditions. The failure of the normal increase in the merchant fleets also must be taken into consideration in computing shortage of ocean tonnage. The only conclusion is that there is an imperative demand for new ships and it will be our effort to be of service in this direction. 

"The United States forged ahead as rapidly as Germany fell behind," says Mr. Hurley. "In August, 1014, the United States seagoing merchant marine, 500 gross tons and over, included 624 steamers of 1,785,465 gross tons, and 870 sailing vessels and schooner barges of 947,-852 gross tons, making a grand total of 1494 seagoing merchant vessels of 2,-706317 gross tons. 
"On November 11, 1918, at the end of the war, the steam merchant marine had increased to 1366 vessels of 4,685,263 gross tons, and the sailing vessels and schooner barges had decreased to 747 vessels of 5,515,180 gross tons. This does not includes the seized enemy vessels which at the end of the war aggregated eighty-eight vessels of $562,005 gross tons, of which number eighty-one of 546,210 gross tons were steamers and seven of 15,795 gross tons were sailing vessels. 
"The total construction in the United States added to the merchant marine during the war amounted to 875 vessels of 2,941,845 gross tons. The purchase from aliens {alliins} of 233 vessels of 833,854 gross tons, the movement to the ocean from the Great Lakes of 66 steamers of 139,469 gross tons, and miscellaneous acquisitions amounting to 31 vessels of 39,219 gross tons are other sources of acquisition.  

"The loss of 114 vessels of 322, 214 gross tons by enemy action, of 278 vessels of 405,400 gross tons by marine risk, of 130 vessels of 268,149 gross tons by sale of alliins and of 64 vessels of 149,761 gross tons through sale to the United States Government, abandonment and other courses accounts for the decreases. 
"Losses of fifteen seized German and requisitioned Dutch steam vessels, amounting to 112,248 gross tons are not included in the loss given above. 
"Today we are potentially the greatest maritime power of the earth, for the reason that we posses the greatest ship-building instrumentalities."
"Mr. Hurley's report shows an enormous net war loss in merchant tonnage for Great Britain."
"Great Britain entered the war with a seagoing merchant fleet of 9240 vessels of 19,257,000 gross tons. She came out of the war with a merchant fleet of 15,814,000 tons, a net loss of 3,443,000 tons. This figure probably overstates the tonnage available for use due to the fact that many vessels were pressed into service and kept in service during the war which would normally have been written off as losses.
"In 1913 British shipyards achieved a record output of 1,900,000 gross tons. The first year of the war, 1914, witnessed a considerable reduction; in 1915 it fell again and the yards turned out only 650,000 gross tons; in 1916 the total output was 540,000 gross tons. By renewed efforts they turned out 1,200,000 gross tons in 1917, and 1918 amounted to a still higher total.
"Mr. Hurley made a survey of the yards of the United Kingdom and reaches the conclusion that under favorable conditions they may reach or even exceed the 3,000,000 gross ton output predicted for 1919.
"I have heard a great deal said about the construction of 'junk ships' in America," said Mr. Hurley, "emphasis thus being laid upon the number of small vessels we had under construction. It was sought to convey the impression that our new ships would suffer by comparison with those laid down by our friends and associates overseas.
"It may surprise those critics to hear, as I have heard, that British years had under construction October 31 sixty-six ships of 6000 gross tons and over. Our program for that date called for 106 ships of 6000 gross tons or over."
In England, Mr. Hurley finds, the policy is to avoid nationalization of shipping. The sale of certain uncompleted standard ships has been arranged by the British government. About 137 ships were included in the transaction, and some $100,000,000 is involved. Undoubtedly the ministry is writing off considerable on its construction cost and the price made to the shipping companies is naturally a satisfactory one. 
"Even Switzerland has not escaped this desire to acquire a merchant marine."
Switzerland, it is explained, intends to construct a merchant navy when canal improvements are made on the Rhine, which will bring raw material in exchange for manufactured goods. 
The ambition of some of the other great nations in the matter of expanding their merchant marine may be summarized from the report as follows:
France, in view of her large losses, 

[[next column]]
World Maritime Status
Before and After the War
[[left aligned]] Gross Tons
Steam seagoing merchant tonnage of the world, July, 1914.. 41,225,000
Steam seagoing tonnage of the world today, excluding 1,000,000 tons for abandonment, etc .................... 37,010,000
Net loss ........................... 4,215,000
Loss through failure of normal increase by new construction 12,000,000
World shortage .......................... 16,245,000

[[left column within previous section]]
[[left aligned]] Gross tons
By enemy action.12,815,000
Marine risk .... 2,192,000
Capture or seizure by enemy. 211,000
New construction ........11,856,000
Capture or seizure by enemy 2,393,000
Net loss .................. 969,000

[[right column within previous section]]
[[left aligned]] Gross tons
By enemy action. 199,000
Marine risk .... 424,000
Capture or seizure by enemy. 2,393,000
Total ................... 3,016,000


New construction ....... 740,000
Net loss ................. 2,276,000

[[return to one central column]]


[[left aligned]] Gross tons
[[aligned further left]] Per Cent Gross tons

United States (500 gross tons and over) .... 3,370,868  125
Japan (steam, 500 gross tons and over) .... 384,538     25


Great Britain (100 gross tons and over) ..... 3,443,000


The figures below give gross losses through enemy action. With the exception of the United States, Japan and Great Britain, where net figures are available and given above, there is probably small differences between gross and net losses on account of war-time difficulties in replacing lost tonnage.

[[left column within previous section]]
[[left aligned]] Gross tons
[[further left aligned]] Per cent

Portugal ....... 92,382   76.4
Italy ........... 852,124  50.6
Norway .......... 1,178,335  47.1
Greece .......... 336,545   40.3
France .......... 907,168  39.1
Great Britain ..7,653,746
Denmark ...... 239,922
Belgium ...... 98,974
Spain ......... 167,693

[[right column within previous section]]
[[left aligned]] Gross tons
[[further left aligned]] Per cent

Sweden ....... 201,733   18.1
Russia ........ 183,852  17.5
Holland ........... 199,975 13.3
Uruguay ....... 6,889   13.0
Brazil ......... 25,464   7.9
Japan .......... 127,470  7.5
United States .. 383,987  7.2
Rumania ...... 3,688   6.5
Peru ............ 1,419   2.7
Argentine ....... 4,275  1.9

and the utilization of her shipyards for the production of war material, has asked President Wilson to approve and support these three proposals:
1-That German and Austrian shipping be given to France to replace her losses ton for ton.
2-That French ship owners be enabled immediately to buy 1,000,000 tons of ships built in Great Britain and 1,000,000 tons of ships built in America.
3-That French ship owners be enabled immediately to construct in American shipyards 2,000,000 tons of cargo steamers. 

The war loss of approximately 1,700,000 gross tons, more than half her fleet as it existed at the beginning of the war seems to have inspired Italy with high ambitions for the future of her merchant marine. It has been estimated that in three years the Italian merchant fleet will exceed 4,000,000 gross tons.
Japan has not only added strength to her own merchant navy, but has undertaken the building of merchant vessels for foreign account. At the crux of the military situation in France the United States, which had already obtained through charter and purchase about 280,000 deadweight tons. The maximum capacity of her yards is 1,700,000 deadweight tons.
Japan is developing new sources of steel in China with a view of becoming less dependent on America and Europe for plate.
At the end of 1918 Sweden had fifty ships of approximately 60,000 dead-weight tons under construction, a record in Swedish ship building, She is hampered by lack of raw material, but is prepared to go ahead on enlarged scale when raw materials become available.
Several new yards have been built and old yards put in repair in Norway. She is now getting necessary raw material and will endeavor to replace her own losses and expand her merchant fleet.

New Ad Bureau for Coast Is Assured
OAKLAND, March 29.-A three-day conference of leading advertising managers and publishers of the Pacific Coast, which ended today in San Francisco, has resulted in the organizing of the pacific Coast Daily Newspaper Association.
The bureau of advertising of the American Newspaper Publishers' Association "would be pleased to establish a bureau on the Pacific Coast," according to a telegram received here today by the newly formed organization from W.
A. Thomson, Chicago, director of the bureau. In a message to the bureau yesterday the organization asked that such an office be established.

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School League Endorses Bills
Los Angeles division of Protective Organization Closely Analyzes Legislation

Senate and Assembly bills pending in the state Legislature with a distinct hearing n the public school of the State were analyzed at a meeting of the Los Angeles division of the public school Protective League here recently and today endorsements stands of two of the measures Senate bill No. 474 and Assembly bill No. 267.
The first of these bills introduced by Senator Evans of Riverside, is a proposed amendment to the health and development act, and fixes the number of persons that may be employed in the schools and also their qualifications. At the present time the number that may be employed is unlimited and there are no professional requirements.
Such a condition inevitably provides a safe haven for the charlatan and political doctor, who sees in the public schools a promising field for exploitation. This bill also gives parents the fight to file annually with the school authorities a statement in writing to the effect that they do not wish their child physically examined, and thereupon the child shall be exempt from examination except for contagious diseases. This provision is designed to do away with the compulsory feature of physical examinations.
A. B. 267, introduced by Assemblyman Graves of Los Angeles, was drawn to carry out the recommendations of the State Board of Education, which, alarmed at the insistence with which the propaganda of private agencies is being attempted to be introduced into the schools, is seeking a means whereby to stem the tide which threatens to turn the public school system completely over for the exploitation of the theories of those organizations politically powerful enough to secure admittance.
Among the bills condemned by the League in its resolutions are A. B. 114, the iniquitous "Child Hygiene Bill," which is being opposed by the First District, Congress of Mothers, the Pasadena P. T. A., and other similar organizations, as well as A. B. 671, the bill which would provide 3000 political office holders to physically examine each child in the State.
It is the policy of the Public School Protective League to get the schools back to the real principles of education, in the words of Supt. of Public Instruction Will C. Wood.

Groves Mentioned for Census Berth
It became known yesterday that friends are strongly urging the appointment of F. Ray Groves as Supervisor of Census for the district of Los Angeles County, the position held by Bert L. Farmer, now president of the City Council, during the taking of the last United States census. A conference between Mr. Groves and Acting Mayor Farmer was held at the City Hall yesterday.
Mr. Groves is secretary of the Democratic county central committee and the son of Ben F. Groves, registrar of the United States Land Office.

Ocean Park to Have Two New Newspapers
Ocean Park is to have two new newspapers. The Bulletin, now a weekly, will be printed next week as a daily. It is owned by the Santa Monica Outlook. A new weekly is soon to make its appearance and will be known as The News. It is said that the new weekly will be printed in the interest of the annexationists. This is neither denied nor confirmed by Lotus Louden, who will have charge of the new paper. It will be published by a corporation.

Forty Days in Jail for Taking Sweater
POMONA, March 29.-Forty days in the county jail was the sentence given to C. Diaz of La Verne, today, by Justice U. E. White for stealing a sweater. 
The garment was taken from an automobile in La Verne. When the owner discovered the loss, he notified Deputy Constable Doutt. Two days later Doutt saw Diaz wearing the sweater on the main streets of La Verne. 
The young man entered a plea of guilty.

Scouts' Beacon Fires to Celebrate Peace
NEW YORK, March 29.-The suggestion of Sir Robert Baden-Powell, head of the British Boy Scouts, that the millions of Boy Scouts throughout the world celebrate the signing of peace by a world-round chain of bonfires has been adopted by the Boy Scouts of America, it was announced here today by the national headquarters of the organization. The 367,093 Boy Scouts in the United States will light great fires in all sections of the country on the night the treaty is signed.

Wake Up!
Reconstruction Days Are Here
Building Construction Costs You LESS Than Anything Else Today
This Is a Positive Fact!
Study Carefully These "BUILD NOW" Truths:

Truth One 
Building Materials Are NOT High
Material price advances are less than any other commodities since America entered the war. Lumber, lath, roofing, brick, cement, lime, plaster, average only 25 per cent more. Their present prices will not, cannot come down.

Truth Two 
Building Wages Are NOT High
Wages in the building trades have advanced the least of any of the skilled trades. In the "general commodities" field wages have advanced 94 per cent while in the "building" field they have advanced only 28.5 per cent. Building wages cannot recede. Their tendency will be to advance as labor surpluses are gradually absorbed.

Truth Three 
All Building Restrictions Removed
America must expend four and one-half billion dollars during 1919 to overtake normal construction because of Federal curtailment as a war nonessential. To minimize unemployment and speed up delayed construction the Government has now removed all construction restrictions. This return to normal is starting in all portions of the East. Increased "demand" soon will increase all building costs.

Truth Four 
Real Estate Prices Now LOW
Land is the least inflated of all material wealth. This fact offsets difference in pre-war construction costs.

Truth Five 
Rents Are Now HIGH 
High rents are due to war-time construction inactivity and housing congestion. Their continuation will offset nominal wage and material cost increases.

Truth Six 
Prices and Wages CANNOT Fall
Authorities agree that, owing to tremendous expansion of money and credits and to the billions loaned by America, lower price levels are impossible for many years to come.

Truth Seven 
ALL Business Helped by Building
Every trade, industry or enterprise is directly benefited by building through increased employment, and increased domestic demands.

Truth Eight 
American Homes and Ideals Must Be Safeguarded 
"The red flag never floats above the hearth." Every building contract increases pay rolls and the nation's spending power, insuring general prosperity and combating spread of Bolshevism.
Common Sense Says 
Build Now
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