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988    AVIATION    September 15, 1924

over four places, have been put up for this competition. It must have an air speed of greater than 85 mi./hr. In order to eliminate airplanes which do not meet the intent of the race; that is, planes which might be able to stagger off the ground with a 2,000 lb. pay load, a restriction in wing area has been placed in the regulations which state that the contest is only open to airplanes having a wing area of greater than 600 sq. ft.
   In order not to overload these large ships during the race for the same reason that overloads were prevented in the foregoing event, a contest load has been stipulated as follows. The crew must weigh 340 lb. Each plane must carry a contest load which shall be determined from the following formula, using as a basis the cubic inch displacement for the 400 hp. Liberty engine:
   400/1649 x cubic inch displacement of engine or engines used x 2 = "Contest Load."
   This load shall consist of shot ballast, which will be furnished the contestants. Fire extinguishers and parachutes may be included, but fixed instruments are excluded. To further bring the military planes to what might be termed a commercial standing, it is further stated that bomb racks, guns and mounts may be removed. This race is for a distance of 150 mi., ten laps of a 15 mi. course, and will be started at 12:50 p. m. on Friday, Oct. 3.
   In order to prevent the bunching of these large ships at the turns the planes will be sent away in a flying start, at 30 sec. intervals.

Dayton Daily News Light Airplane Trophy
   The light plane enthusiasts will have an opportunity to display their wares and skill in Event No. 8, known as the Dayton Daily News Light Airplane Trophy contest, which will start at 2:40 p. m., Friday, Oct. 3. This race carries with it a beautiful trophy and $3,250 in prizes, distributed over three places. The contest is restricted to civilian pilots only.
   Airplanes having engines of 80 eu. in. piston displacement, or less, are eligible in this contest. The contest is for a distance of 35 mi., five laps of a 5 mi. course and the planes will be sent away from a standing start.
   When the announcement of the cubic inch displacement was made some time ago it brought forth a considerable amount of criticism from the champions of lower cubic inch engines. How are we to encourage the development of light planes in this country ? First of all, by building them. The planes in this country ? First of all, by building them. The next question arising is after we build them where do we obtain the engines ? The average light plane constructor, whom we are trying to encourage, does not have funds available to purchase expensive low horsepower engines which are now more or less available on the European market. We have just learned that several of the constructors, who were desirous of using these foreign engines have been unable at the last minute to obtain delivery, making it necessary in most cases, for them, in order to get into the race, to purchase engines in this country. This seems to bear out more fully than ever the reasons for placing the limit at 80 eu. in. This makes it possible for contestants to purchase several different types of successful motorcycle engines, which are applicable to light plane use. By doing this, we encourage the average constructor, who perhaps is not so fortunate as others who are provided with more adequate funds and engineering skill. Furthermore some of the later contests abroad indicate the advisability of using engines of greater horsepower.
  Further criticisms have been brought forward to the effect that not sufficient attention has been given to the efficiency of the planes; some going so far as to state that all that has been considered is the reaction of the public, from the standpoint of speed. One has only to glance over the regulations for this contest to see that this is not the case. First of all, the race must be conducted around a five mile course, with one side of the triangle one mile between pylons. The other corner, two miles away, is marked by an observation balloon anchored at an altitude of 500 ft. Contesting planes are required to cover the one mile between the two pylons on each lap, at an altitude of not greater than 60 ft., then climb to the third pylon, which is the balloon, and around it at the altitude of the basket.
   Can this be strictly a speed contest ? True, the prizes are awarded for the airplane covering the course in the least time. But planes first of all must have sufficient surplus power to be able to climb to the 500 ft. level in a distance of two miles. If they are unable to do this, they may circle for altitude, before passing the balloon. This entails a loss of time and therefore reduction in speed. Secondly, when these airplanes are climbing at their maximum climbing angle, they must have proper maneuverability, and if they are not stable and provided with adequate control surfaces it will be impossible to successfully maneuver these planes during the climb, and particularly at the instant they are required to round the balloon. The results of this race will be watched with great interest, and it is expected that much will be learned as to the construction of airplanes of this type.

Detroit News Air Mail Trophy
   Event No. 9, which is a race for Air Mail airplanes and Air Mail pilots for the Detroit News Air Mail Trophy, is of timely interest. This contest will be started at 9:30 a. m. Saturday, Oct. 4.
   The possibilities of commercial aviation can be brought to the minds of the layman in no more forcible manner than is being done each day and night by our Air Mail carriers. Our hats are off to these men who have pioneered in this work, and it is entirely fitting that the event should be placed in the program. It carries prizes of $4,000, distributed over six places, and will be for a distance of 300 km. (186.42 mi.), six laps of a 50 km. course. The race is open to Air Mail planes having a greater speed than 90 mi./hr. and capable of carrying a pay load of 800 lb. or over. However, planes will not be required to carry this load during the race.
   The public will have an opportunity of seeing the planes which have maintained the remarkable schedule of Air Mail and see for themselves the ingenuous manner in which these pilots have prepared their planes for this work.

An Added Light Plane Race
   In order to further encourage the light plane builder and to meet the demand for more or less of an efficiency contest, Event No. 10 which is a speed and efficiency race for light airplanes of the same class as those entered in Event No. 8 will be started at 11:40 a. m. Saturday, Oct. 4. This contest as in Event 6 has been divided into two parts for speed and efficiency. The speed portion of the race carries prizes of $3,200 and the efficiency prizes total $1,800. The Dayton Bicycle Club has prepared a beautiful trophy for the speed portion of the race, and the Engineer's Club of Dayton has provided the trophy for the efficiency section of this event.
   This race is also open to airplanes having engines of 80 eu. in. or less. Planes must carry a total load of 150 lb., which shall consist of pilot and ballast if necesary. The race will be for 50 mi., ten laps around a five mile course. This is the same as in Event No. 8, with the exception that all pylons will be 60 ft. high. In order to meet the demand for an efficiency formula which, in this case, could hardly be based upon horsepower, either actual or assumed, it was found necessary to use the following formula:
   Figure of merit = Speed of completing race in mi./hr / Gasoline consumed
   It will be seen at a glance that in determining the figure of merit the planes are given credit for the speed made in the race, but are penalized for the gasoline actually consumed. The actual control of this contest presents some serious problems. However, it is believed that they have been made in such manner that there will be no argument as to the actual gasoline measurements. In this case, the tanks will be completely filled before the race and the actual gasoline required to refill the tank after the race will be carefully measured.
   In case some of the planes use air pressure feed, arrangements will be made to remove a definite quantity of the fuel after the tank has been filled and the contestants will be given credit for this amount.
   Planes competing in this race will be sent away from standing starts and, for matters of safety, the groups to be started will not exceed six planes each.
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