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the workers in general. Many white workers have been used to replace Negroes as janitors, bootblacks, etc., at even lower wages than had been paid to the Negroes. In Atlanta, 150 Negro bellboys were replaced by whites. White girls were used to replace colored male employees of over 40 years standing in the check room of the Pennsylvania railroad station. In Harrisburg, Pa., one of the largest hotels displaced Negro waiters with white waitresses. Department stores in Ohio have replaced Negro porters by whites. In Austin, Texas, whites are now employed instead of Negroes to deliver goods for jobbing houses. Examples could be multiplied indefinitely. DISCRIMINATION AGAINST NEGROES IN PUBLIC WORKS The public works operated by the national, State, city and county governments systematically discriminate against Negroes. At the Hoover Dam, in Nevada, no Negro workers were taken on until persistent protests had forced the contractors to hire at least a handful out of a working force of thousands. Latest reports from Nevada are that the majority of these Negroes have been fired. It was publicly announced by the Highway Commission of Mississippi that no Negroes would be employed in the work of public road building. Negroes are not allowed to work on the river work in Omaha, a Federal job. They have been systematically discriminated against at the El Capitan Dam in San Diego. They were refused work in the building of the new wing at Harlem Hospital, New York, and were not employed to tear up and re-lay 143rd and 136th streets, in the very heart of Harlem. 10 DISCRIMINATION BY RELIEF AGENCIES But at the same time, with the least chance of being employed, with the worst pay on the job, Negro workers are forced to pay higher rents and higher prices for food, in the segregated, Jim-Crow areas into which they are herded. And on top of it all, they get the least relief of any of the jobless. According to a survey made in October, 1932, 74 percent of the unemployed in Harlem were not receiving any relief at all. In Washington, D. C., Negro jobless receive at all times at least one-third less than the meagre relief doled out to unemployed whites. If work is given, Negroes get less. They also get less food. Negro and white are waited on in different rooms. The unemployed relief station for Negroes in San Antonio, Texas, has been closed down altogether. In many cities of the South—Jacksonville, for example—the grafting charity authorities force the Negro jobless to work for the Red Cross flour which the white unemployed get free. The relief agencies say smugly: "Never mind—Negroes are used to a lower standard of living anyway." That is the excuse given to grind the Negroes down still further. TERRORISM AGAINST NEGRO JOBLESS The authorities in many places are trying to send back to the South some Negro families who have come north. The city officials of Newark thought out a scheme to deport jobless Negroes back South. They did this through the Red Cross. This means sending Negroes back where they will not only starve, but are denied the most elementary democratic 11
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