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Third World News  Monday, February 29, 1971


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A. Development of Lake
  Students being trained in heavy equipment operation, in agricultural development, and in fish and wildlife management will construct at least one catch-basin on the property, large enough to serve multiple purposes: reserve water for irrigation; water for stock-feeding; and a lake for fishing and waterfowl production. The lake will be stocked with serveral [[several]] varieties of fish and will also be stocked with tame mallards and geese to attract wild species. Russian Olive and other wildlife-attracting plants will be utilized along one side of the lake to provide a wildlife refuge area. Water will be obtained from winter run-off along the natural drainage on the property, and from well-pumped sources.
The earth removed for the construction of the lake will be utilized as described below.
The operation and maintenance of the like-wildlife zone will provide a continuing opportunity for student training in agricultural management, fish and wildlife management, and recreation development. Surplus fish will be utilized as a part of the university food service operation. 
The above project will also serve to solve the site's drainage problems.

B. Development of Quality Pasture Land
  A large part of the present acreage will be disced and worked so that superior types of pasture can be developed, with alfalfa and other top-quality hay crops being planted. Subsequently, various kinds of live-stock will be raised. All of this will be a part of the agricultural training program for students. The food produced will, where practicable, be utilized in the university food service program.

C.  Poultry and Small Animal Programs
  A small portion of the acreage will be developed for training programs in poultry raising, rabbit raising, etc., utilizing methods perfected by the Peace Corps. Students will be able to in turn instruct rural communities in inexpensive and proper ways to manage small animal production.

D.  Experimental Horticulture Area
  A portion of the acreage will be set aside for experimentation with crops and plants not normally dealt with by college programs but which have high potential as sources of food and/or dollars for poor communities, especially with marginal soil. Crops will include nopales, magueys, tuckahoe, camas, etc.
  Low-cost "hot houses" will also be developed so that students returning to their communities can instruct their people in how to raise crops in a small amount of space and in spite of adverse weather or soil conditions.

E. Food and Hide Processing Area
  An area will be developed to be used for instruction in food processing and preservation utilizing primarily traditional low-cost Indian-Mexican techniques. Several types of smoke-houses, drying racks, and out-door ovens will be constructed. Adjacent to this area will be one devoted to instruction in tanning and preparation of deer-skins, cow hides, etc., as a part of comprehensive training. Students will learn how to prepare smoked fish, smoked meat, pemmican, jerky, leather and skins and baked foods, to name a few. The object of the training will, of course, be to the end that they, in turn, can train people elsewhere in these skills, so vital to low-income people's survival and enrichment.

F. Fiber Growing Zone
  An area along a creek, ditch or pond will be devoted to the propagation of several varieties of marsh grasses suitable for the manufacture of mats, matting, and certain types of baskets, trays, etc. A nearby, but drier area, will be utilized to grow other grasses used for finer types of basketry work. 

G. Cultural Center
  An Indian-Chicano Cultural Center will be developed along the south portion of the site, with the following components: 1. examples of different styles of traditional Indian and Mexican architecture, including especially those which are adaptable to contemporary use; 2. a dance ground for traditional Indian and Mexican folk dances; 3. a museum and exposition building displaying Indian-Chicano history, culture, and contemporary industries and contributions; and 4. a gallery of Indian-Chicano art. Initially the museum and gallery will be housed in existing buildings. 
  Construction of traditional-style buildings will commence shortly after acquisition of the site. 
  The development of the Cultural Center will provide training opportunities for students in building construction, museum development and operation, etc. The completed units, will, of course, serve as audio-visual parts of the continuing instructional program and can also be used by nearby public schools and for the education of the general public. 

H. Equestrian Program
  Corrals and stalls will be constructed to provide for a few horses to be utilized in training in the care of horses, in such things as horse-shoeing, and riding and breaking of horses. This may evolve into a rodeo development and management program and at that point a small practice arena would be needed. In the beginning, however, the nearby Yolo County Fairgrounds or Dixon Fairgrounds can probably be utilized for actual rodeo skill development programs. 

I. Use of Antennae Poles
  Much of the southern part of the site is currently an area where many telephone-type wood poles are located (radio antennaes). The bulk of these can be removed and will provide excellent logs for the construction of Indian traditional buildings, drying racks, smoke-houses, barns, and corrals. 

J. Tennis and Basketball Courts 
  The existing tennis and basketball courts will be utilized as part of physcial[[physical]] education instruction and for student recreation. 

K. Athletic Field
  An athletic field suitable for la crosse, soccer, football and other sports will be developed, although not immediately. Current lawn areas can be utilized for touch football. 

2. Buildings

A. Information Booth 
  This small building will be used as an office for the campus security patrol and as an information center for visitors. 

B. Administration (Transmitter) Building
  This quite large building will be used for the following purposes: 1. offices for administration and record-keeping; 2. classrooms for lecture-discussion type instruction; 3. library; 4. temporary housing for the museum and art gallery; 5. study hall for students; 6. offices for faculty. Certain rooms will be partitioned with movable partitions to provide semi-private study and work areas. 

C. Electrical Plant (Power) Building
   This quite large building already possesses equipment useful for offering instruction in diesel and gasoline engine mechanics, electric power generating plant operation, and automobile and truck mechanics. All of the existing equipment will be used. Additional instructional areas will be developed for vocational training in this building. 

D. Communications Center Building
   This building houses a large over-sized air conditioning system which can be used to offer instruction in refrigeration and air conditioning. The smaller rooms in this building will be used as classrooms while the largest room will either be utilized as a large auditorium-lecture hall, or perhaps temporarily, partitioned so as to serve as a men's dormitory. 

E. Pump Houses 
   The pump houses will, of course, be used to produce water for drinking, irrigation, etc. They will also serve to help train students in water pump operation and maintenance. 

F. Dormitory-Infirmary Building
   This dormitory building presently includes hopsital [[hospital]] rooms, dormitory room (upstairs), and a cafeteria-kitchen area. Eventually this building can serve as the clinical-laboratory instructional area for the medical college, as well as offering student health services. The cafeteria and kitchen will be developed to offer food service. 
   Temporarily the building will largely be used to provide dormitory space until the medical college commences operation and other quarters can be developed. 

G. Dormitory Building
   This will be used as a dormitory until other dormitory space is available. At that time it might be well converted to use as part of the medical college. 

H. New Buildings
   Certain new facilities will gradually have to be developed, especially as the resident student population grows. These facilities will include: 1. new living quarters for students including apartments for married students. Very possibly surplus portable buildings can be utilized for this purpose; 2. a student recreation-services building including recreation area, library, bookstore-student store, library and student offices; 3. a science building with laboratories and classrooms developed specifically for instruction in the physical-natural sciences as well as in the medical field and nursing. 

I. Other Possible Facilities
   It is possible that the university will wish to develop other buildings in conjunction with public or private agencies whenever these agencies' programs will directly enhance the instructional and research programs of the university. 
   For example, the university is considering the development of programs in criminal justice, prisoner rehabilitation, and law enforcement training. It is conceivable that agreements might be reached with the State Department of Corrections or with the Federal Prison System to develop rehabilitation programs or a "Half-way House" onthe [[on the]] campus. The nearby California State Facility at Vacaville will provide an opportunity for early pilot development in this area.  
   Similarly, the California State Indian Museum in nearby Sacramento is in need of a new, larger facility. It is conceivable that an arrangement can be worked out either to allow for a new museum on university property or, at least, for a joint program of some kind. 
   Still further, it is conceivable that the U.S. Public Health Service, Indian Division, might wish to develop a service center for Indian patients which could be closely integrated with the proposed medical college. 

3. Other Facilities Near the Site Which Can be Utilized 

The university, once located on the site under discussion, may well be able to work out cooperative arrangements with the following nearby facilities to use those facilities for part of the instructional or training program, or to set up joint programs. 

A. Winters Airstrip, one mile away
B. California State Medical Facility, Vacaville
C. Yolo County Fairgrounds, Woodland
D. Dixon May Fairgrounds, Dixon
E. California State Library, Sacramento
F. California State Archives, Sacramento
G. University of California, Davis (many facilities, including the library) 
H. University of the Pacific (Stockton and Sacramento)
I. Sacramento State College (especially the library)
J. Solano College, Vallejo (library)
K. University of California, Berkeley (1 1/2 hours away)
L. Many commercial/industrial firms in the Sacramento-Vallejo region. 
M. California Maritime Academy, Vallejo




A. Introduction
   The trustees of the university are fully cognizant of the financial difficulties facing both public and private colleges and, especially, of the challenge involved in establishing a totally new institution of higher learning. Many voices can be heard counseling failure for new enterprises, advising the admission of defeat before even an attempt at success has been made. 
   We cannot give heed to the pessimists, we cannot admit defeat for this, an age-old dream of Indians and Chicanos, precisely because of the pressing needs of our people at this time. 

Monday, February 29, 1971 Third World News Page 11

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   In short, we believe that the "time" for this idea, the idea of an Indian-Chicano university, has indeed "arrived." Its ultimate development is, in essence, inevitable, and only its stages of evolution and its rate of growth are subject to discussion. 

B. Culturally-Determined Aspects of Financing
   Many Anglo-Americans, especially in the field of higher education, are accustomed to multi-million dollar budgets, ornate buildings, plush office furniture, private offices, and other items which, from the Indian-Chicano perspective, are indeed luxuries. 
   It is well for the members of the majority culture who might peruse this document to bear in mind that for several centuries now Indian and Chicano people have been sustaining their most important social, religious, and cultural institutions, ordinarily in an extremely austere manner, with virtually no funding from any outside sources whatsoever. Indian societies are quite accustomed, for example, to inadequate "convention" facilities (that is, a campground or a run-down "community hall"), impoverishment for their most valued and honored leaders and traditional educators, inadequate housing, "self-help" transportation to meetings or gatherings, and the like. 
   In spite of impoverishment, however, most Indian and Chicano communities have maintained their institutions and values and have created much that is useful and significat [[significant]], far beyond the "frontiers" of white public or private philanthropy. 
   In brief, Indian and Chicano people are not without the resources of perseverance and committment necessary to sustain an enterprise (such as a university) with our without the support of the majority culture, even though it will be openly acknowledged that the latter's help will greatly facilitate development.  
  It must further be noted that Indian and Chicano people, being well-acquainted with poverty and simplicity of living (and even valuing the latter as a virtue) possess the inner resources and equanimity to develop a richly-rewarding educational environment with resources which would probably be regarded as prohibitively meagre by Anglo-American standards. It should also be candidly stated that many Indian-Chicano people regard luxurious surroundings (or even "modest" surroundings by white standards) as being inappropriate at a time when the bulk of Indian-Chicano people exist at a below-poverty level and may be fortunate to spend the Dakota winter in an abandoned car body or a freight packing crate.  
   These cultural and economic realities should certainly be considered by anyone who might otherwise reach a premature judgment about the "viability" of an Indian-Chinao [[Indian-Chicano]] university. Who would have believed, a few generations ago, that the Native American Church, with no money (and, indeed, under legal-political attack) would become the most important religious group among North American Indian people, outdistancing its relatively well-financed "competitors"? Who also would have thought that all of the federally-operated educational programs for Indians would eventually be rated as inferior to the self-financed schools of the Cherokee Nation before 1890? 

   Deganawidah-Quetzalcoatl University will be immeasurably aided by outside financing, but its real strength will be derived from the ancient perseverence [[perseverance]] and quality of character of the Indian-Chicano people. 

C. Financial Plan 
   The development of the university will be based upon a wide variety of financing arrangements, including contracts with public agencies, foundation grants, gifts, tuition, voluntary services, and, perhaps, annual federal appropriations. 
   The "base-line" financing of the university is already assured, in that a large number of suitable instructors have already agreed to teach courses in the evening and on week-ends without receiving money compensation. These instructors range from holders of the doctorate who are now teaching in major universities to tribal and community leaders with practical expertise, to artisans and craftsmen with unique skills. 
   The work of these voluntary instructors will make it possible for the university to commence its "general program" (i.e., courses not a part of any specific contract program) in the Spring Semester, 1971. Offering courses in the evenings and on week-ends will make it possible to serve the several hundred thousand Indians and Chicanos within driving distance of the Davis-Winters campus without becoming involved, initially, in providing extensive housing for resident students. Many Anglo-Americans, especially teachers, social workers, and community service people, will also benefit from these offerings. 
   The use of voluntary instructors will gradually be phased out in the years to come as foundation grants, congressional appropriations, etc., provide a financial base for hiring full-time or part-time instructors. On the other hand, the use of voluntary instructors can continue indefinitely should other financing prove disappointing. the Davis-Winters campus is ideally suited for the recruitment of part-time faculty, being within driving distance of many junior colleges, two University of California campuses, four state colleges, two private universities, several private colleges, and numerous quasi-educational institutions (such as hospitals, state medical facilities, etc.)
   Several centers of large Chicano population, such as Stockton, Oakland, San Francisco, Sacramento, and San Jose are within commuting distance, as are the Indian communities of Sacramento, Oakland, Ukiah, San Francisco, Lake County, Round Valley, Auburn, and so on [[.]] Most of these communities possess resource people who can be valuable as instructors. 
   During the first phase of the unviersity's [[university's]] operation, it is planned that support will also be obtained from private and public sources to finance administrative, planning, and maintenance expenses. The Donner Foundation has already provided a $20,000 planning grant to the American Indian Community University Pilot Project (administered by Dr. Jack D. Forbes, first at Far West Laboratory and second at the University of California, Davis). This grant has helped to prepare the way for the creation of the plan and it is hoped that the Donner Foundation will provide additional developmental support as soon as the campus is obtained (the attached letter indicates a willingness to consider providing additional support). 
   Several agencies in the Department of Health, Education and Welfare have indicated that a good possibility exists 


for obtaining a planning grant, or grants, which will also aid in the development of specific plans in various areas. 
   Those students who can afford it will also be asked to pay a tuition fee for the courses which they will take. This fee, comparable to that charged by the University of California Extension and private colleges, will help to pay for operational overhead. It is anticipated that full-time students (12 units or more) will be able to obtain tribal, Bureau of Indian Affairs, United Scholarship Service, or other scholarships which will pay for tuition. the University also anticipates being able to participate in federally-funded scholarship and loan programs, such as are provided by the National Defense Education Act, adn [[and]] in the Economic Opportunity Grant Program. 
   As greater numbers of full-time students are enrolled tuition will, therefore, maek [[make]] up for a sizable portion of the assured annual income of the university. 
   As discussed elsewhere, the unviersity [[university]] also plans to beocme [[become]] involved in the operation of training and research programs complementary to the regular instructional program. During the early phase of the university's operation the only resident students will be those enrolled in contract training programs. 
   It is expected that each training contract and research grant will contribute towards its share of the operating overhead and will also help pay for needed capital equipment and supplies. 
   The trustees anticipate seeking funding from otgher [[other]] private foundations and from private individuals interested in Chicano-Indian affairs. It is premature to discuss this area of financing, since a site must first be obtained. On the other hand, at least one major national foundation has expressed its intentionto [[intention to]] fund certain programs proposed by the university for a two to three year period. 
   the trustees may also seek congressional legislation making an annual federal appropriation available for the use fo [[of]] the university for operating expenses and capital outlay. The Indian-chiano [[Indian-Chicano]] people have been somewhat irked by the long-standing federal subsidy of Howard University, a black school, and the providing of aid for other black colleges, without any comparable aid for Indian-Chicano higher education. In any case, the precedent exists for an annual congressional appropriation for a university. 
   It should be noted that the federal government possesses special, long-acknowledged responsibilities in realtion [[relation]] to Indian education which would also serve to justify a regular annual appropriation. 
   The univeristy [[university]] will also seek to utilize all available sources of federal funding realting [[relating]] to the construction of science classrooms, library facilities, and other higher education facilities. It is especially expected that the development of the medical college will be aided by special federal funding programs. 
   At present, a committee of medical doctors is helping to develop plans for the medical college somewhat independent of the general plans for the university as a whole. There is every indication that the private sector of the medical profession will materially aid in this undertaking. 
   Finally, the university will actively seek donations of materials of all kinds for use in the university. 

D. Summary 
   It is clear that no shortage of funding sources exists. What is not clear, of course, is the degree to which especially public agencies are really willing to help the Chicano and Indian people of the United States. Supposing that the expressed intentions of federal agencies to deal justly with all segments of the population are sincere, then the success of the university is certain. But with or without public agency support, the university will go forward because, very simply, it must. 



Two Pinto Indians, Frank Valdez (r.) and Manuel Cortez (l.), stand guard over the newly acquired land for DQU. 

Transcription Notes:
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