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108 1st resolution irrelevant 3rd resolution at cross purposes w/ 2nd in 1950's & early 60's when unions strong, & shortage of labor weakened estates bargaining position, benefits for women did not cause layoffs; but later these benefits caused estates to stop hiring women as regular workers better child care centers one of the benefits enforced [[strikethrough]] another labor [[/strikethrough]] altho 45% of SARBUPRI membership female, Stoler stresses that it was for the most part a male labor union which fought for male wage increases under the guise of a family wage p24 another labor policy which ultimately had a great effect on female workers was the estates increased use of casual workers drawn from Javanese villages that had grown up on the estate periphery. despite opposition to use of casual labor by SARBUPRI, split came about in estate labor force as follows: 109 [[two column chart: CASUAL WORKERS | PERMANENT WORKERS]] wages in money [[strikethrough]] & k [[/strikethrough]] only | wages in money & kind no social security, medical services or other benefits | eligible for benefits could not be union members | union members lived in Jav. style villages on estate periphery | lived in barracks on estate work thru a labor contractor | work directly for the estate hight %age women | lower %age women at a time when unions strong, use of increased amts of casual labor a deliberate policy on part of estates to break the unions statistics for casual labor force from this period not broken down by sex, but from the types of tasks assigned to casual laborers probable high %age women from 1952-56 no. of strikes by SARBUPRI
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