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LARGEST CITIES IN THE WORLD
Name                       Population
Barcelona, Spain ...........1,000,000
Berlin, Germany ...........4,250,000
Birmingham, England .......1,000,000
Bombay, India .............1,150,000
Budapest, Hungary .........1,000,000
Buenos Aires, Argentina ....2,200,000
Cairo, Egypt ...............1,100,000
Calcutta, India .............1,500,000
Chicago, U.S.A. ............3,400,000
Detroit, U.S.A. ............1,600,000
Glasgow, Scotland ..........1,100,000
Hamburg, Germany .........1,150,000
Hong Kong, China ..........1,000,000
Kyoto, Japan ..............1,000,000
Leningrad, Russia ..........2,000,000
London, England ...........8,200,000
Los Angeles, U.S.A .......1,504,000
Madrid, Spain .............1,000,000



NICKNAMES OF AMERICAN CITIES
Athens of America: Boston, Mass.
Bluff City: Memphis, Tenn.; Hannibal, Mo.
Brotherly Love, City of: Philadelphia
Certainties, City of: Des Moines, Ia.
Churches, City of: Brooklyn, N. Y.
Collar City: Troy, N. Y.
Corn City Toledo, Ohio.
Cream City: Milwaukee, Wis.
Crescent City: New Orleans, La.
Elms, City of: New Haven, Conn.
Empire City: New York, N. Y.
Flour City: Minneapolis, Minn.; Rochester, N. Y.
Flower City: Springfield, Ohio
Forest City: Cleveland, Ohio; Portland, Maine
Gate City of the South: Atlanta, Ga.
Gateway City: Jacksonville, Fla.
Gem City: Dayton, Ohio; St. Paul, Minn.
Golden Gate City: San Francisco, Cal.
Gotham: New York, N. Y.
Heart of America: Kansas City, Mo.
Hour, City of the: Dallas, Texas.
Hub, The: Boston, Mass.

Insurance City: Hartford, Conn. 
Iron City: Pittsburg, Pa.
Magnificent Distances, City of: Washington, D.C.
Metropolis of the West: Los Angeles, Cal.
Monumental City: Baltimore, Md.
Mound City: St. Louis, Mo.
Oleander City: Galveston, Texas.
Palmetto City: Charleston, S.C.
Plains, City of the: Denver. Colo.
Pretzel City: Reading, Pa.
Quaker City: Philadelphia, Pa.
Queen City: Cincinnati, Ohio; Seattle, Wash.
Queen City of the Lake: Buffalo, N.Y.
Roses, City of: Little Rock, Ark.
Saints, City of the: Salt Lake City, Utah.
Shoe City: Lynn, Mass.
Twin Cities: St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.
Whaling CIty: Bedford, Mass.
Windy City: Chicago, Ill.
Zenith City of the Unsalted Sea: Duluth, Minn.

HOW TO REMOVE STAINS
ALABASTER: Use strong soap and water.
BLACK SILK: Brush and wipe it thoroughly, lay on table with the side intended to show, up: sponge with hot coffee strained through muslin; when partly dry, iron.
TO REMOVE STAINS OR GREASE FROM OIL PAINT: Use bisulphide of carbon, spirits of turpentine, or if it is dry and old, use chloroform. These and tar spots can be softened with olive oil and lard.
STAINS, IRON RUST, OR INK FROM VELLUM OR PARCHMENT: Moisten the spot with a solution of oxalic acid. Absorb same quickly by blotting paper or cloth.
RUST FROM STEEL: Take half ounce of emery powder mixed with one ounce of soap and rub well.
FRUIT SPOTS FROM COTTON: Apply cold soap, then touch the spot with a hair pencil or feather dipped in chlorate of soda, dip immediately in cold water.
GREASE FROM SILKS: Take a lump of magnesia, rub if wet on the spot, let it dry, then brush the powder off.
IRON RUST may be removed from white goods by sour milk.
SCORCH STAINS FROM WHITE LINEN: Lay in bright sun.
MILDEW: Moisten the spot with clean water; rub on it a thick coating of castile soap mixed with chalk scrapings; rub with end of finger, then wash off.
OIL MARKS ON WALL PAPER: Apply paste of cold water and pipe clay, leave it on all night, brush off in the morning.
PAINT SPOT FROM CLOTHING: Saturate with equal parts of turpentine and spirits of ammonia.
TO CLEANSE WALL PAPER: Rub a flannel cloth dipped in oatmeal.
BLACK CLOTH: Mix one part of spirits of ammonia with three parts warm water, rub with sponge or dark cloth, clean with water, rub with the nap.

FINGER MARKS FROM FURNITURE: Rub with a soft rag and sweet oil.
CHROMOS: Go over lightly with a damp lien cloth.
ZINC: Rub with a piece of cotton cloth dipped in kerosene, afterwards with a dry cloth.
VEGETABLE STAINS FROM HANDS: Rub with a slice of raw potato.
WINDOW GLASS: Paint can be removed by a strong solution of soda.
TO CLEAN TINWARE: Common soda applied with a moistened newspaper and polished with a dry piece, will make it look new.

SWIFTNESS OF THE EARTH'S REVOLUTION
 In order to accomplish, as it does in 365 1/4 days the immense distance round the sun, our sphere is obliged to travel a distance of 1,580,765.28 miles a day or 65,865.22 miles an hour or 18 miles a second. We sail, then, in immensity with a velocity seventy-five times swifter than that of a cannon ball.
Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation, and may include culturally sensitive information. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research. For questions or comments regarding sensitive content, access, and use related to this collection, please contact transcribe@si.edu.