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THE CRISIS

for it; that the Negroes should stand together and fight for their rights. "I am not afraid of Negro domination," he said. "If I can't match my intellect against that of my neighbor, I wish them good luck and success. So far as lies in my power, the colored man shall have equal rights with the white man."
Senator Clapp, of Minnesota, speaking to colored people, also said recently: "God never made any race for permanent bondage and servitude to other and in the to-morrows to come your descendants will glory in the triumph accomplished through your efforts to-day. There is absolutely nothing in the limitations of color to prevent the black man from being fully as honest, sober, industrious, and of as much service to the community and nation as the white man."
Both these gentlemen doubtless had in mind Senator Bailey, of Texas, who announced not long ago that the South would be "just and even generous" with the colored man if he would "accept permanent inferiority."

The Mexican government declares that it is not satisfied all has been done to apprehend the men who lynched one of its citizens in Texas and has protested to Washington. 

JUDICIAL.

The West segregation ordinance, passed by the city council of Baltimore on May 15 last, has been defined for enforcement by Attorney Alonzo L. Miles, counsel to the Board of Police Commissioners. The law as construed is broader than the previous segregation ordinance. One of the important features is the clause relative to existing "mixed" blocks. The police will permit either white or colored persons to move into "mixed" blocks. The inspector of buildings is authorized to declare a block a "mixed" block on application made to him by a majority of the owners. 

It is unlawful for a colored person to move into or use as a residence any building in a block in which all the residents and occupants of houses, so far as they are occupied at all, are white persons. Penalty, fine $5 to $50 a day.
It is unlawful for a white person to move into or use as a residence any building in a block in which all the residents and occupants of houses, so far as the same are occupied at all by colored persons. Penalty, fine $5 to $50 a day.

Blocks in which there are buildings occupied by both white and colored residents are defined as "mixed blocks." Such mixed blocks are still open to rent and occupancy by either white or colored persons just as they were prior to the passage of this ordinance.

A most extraordinary case, in which two colored men have been punished for the same offense, although it is admitted only one could have been guilty, is reproduced in the Docket, a legal paper published in St. Louis, from the Southern Reporter. It is the case of Toles vs. the State of Alabama. Toles had been found guilty of assault, but his counsel moved to have the verdict set aside, since one John Colvin had already been convicted for the offence of which Toles was now accused. Judge Summerville decided, however, that the verdict must stand. It was true, he said, that the alleged victim had identified Colvin and that it was known only one man entered the house, but what was identification worth under the circumstances? So little that the aggressor might have been Toles instead of Colvin. Therefore Toles should go to prison as well as Colvin. 

ECONOMIC

One hundred and sixty-one union Negro miners of Ogden Iowa are suing the international president, the Iowa president and other mine officials for more than a million and a half dollars on the ground that they were used, against their knowledge, as strikebreakers. The men are asking for $10,000 each. They claim that when they were imported to Ogden the miners' officials told them there was no strike in progress; that they are denied transfer union cards to the Ogden branch of the Mine Worker's Union, that the local union refuses them membership, participation in the union benefits, and other rights and privileges of union men. They ask that they be permitted to form a union of their own, and that the mine officials be compelled to recognize the union after it is formed, and that they be assured all the rights, benefits and privileges of union men. 

Mr. Pinn, of Bethany Baptist Church, speaking before the social workers of Syracuse, N. Y. declared that there are about 1,800 Negroes in Syracuse who cannot find proper living quarters because of prejudice. They also had difficulty in obtaining work, he said. There are only two factories that give employment to colored people. The fact that so many were thus made idle was responsible in some part to immoral conditions. 

New Orleans appears to be concerned over the fact that there is no complete segregation in some factories and workshops of that city. A woman factory inspector points out that the laundries particularly have white girls, black women and white and black men working 


ALONG THE COLOR LINE     141

promiscuously. "The white and black employees are prohibited from riding to the factory or laundry in the same compartments of cars, or eating in the same restaurant or confectionery, and yet they are permitted to work all day together." All of which distresses her, but there is no law prohibiting it. 
To get their licenses to work, too, "pretty timid white girls" have to stand in line with colored girls, and even with colored boys. The inspector thinks there should be separation but hasn't been able to "study out" a way.

From 1900 to 1920 the number of farms in South Carolina increased by 20,825; but the number owned by Negroes increased by 11,295 against an increase of only 9,530 in the number owned by whites. In a total of 176,180 farms, 96,696, or more than one-half, are now owned by colored people. 

The City Times, of Galveston, gives some statistics about that city's colored population of about 8,000 souls. They are engaged in twenty-nine different industries and professions. There are three public schools, one Catholic school, together representing an attendance of about 1,200. Over 250 homes are owned in the city of Galveston alone, valued at about $200,000. There are fifteen churches, their property representing about $120,000. There are eight organizations in Galveston, owning real estate to the value of about $75,000. The total wealth of all the colored people in Galveston from all sources will fairly represent a sum over $600,000.
 
Answering the question why there are so few Negro members of the molders' union, the International Molder's Journal says that the largest union in the South has recently voted to take qualified Negro mechanics into membership, and that, while this action may not be in line with the prevailing sentiment of twenty years ago, it is in line with justice both to white and to Negroes, "for industrial competition pays no heed to questions of social equality."

RELIGIOUS

The New England Colored Baptists' Missionary convention, in Providence, voted to send a delegation of 5,000 to Washington, with a committee of fifteen for spokesmen, to tell President Taft of the wrongs the race suffers in the South. None of the details were fixed, but a member of the executive committee said that they would probably gather in a Washington church and ask President Taft to address them, and send the committee to the White House later. The plan was introduced by the Rev. G. L. P. Taliaferro, D.D., editor of the Christian Banner, of Philadelphia. 

The Rev. E. C. Morris, president of the National Baptist Convention of North America, has been honored by the being made one of the American members of the executive committee of the Baptist World Alliance. The colored Baptists of America have now suitable recognition in this international association. Dr. Morris has been prominent in the Alliance since the first meeting, held in London six years ago.
 
An exhibition of mission work called "The Orient in Providence," is planned in Providence,, R. I., and representative Negroes have protested against a proposed drawing of the color line. A meeting of colored ministers proposed that their churches withdraw from the movement. "While all other churches are grouped according to locality, the Negro churches are all grouped by themselves," the ministers say in their statement. "This narrow, unchristian spirit is resented by the colored people. It is strange that a 'missionary exposition' in reference to the people of China, Japan and Korea cannot given in Providence without also giving an exhibition of race prejudice."

In keeping with its policy of turning its large colored schools over to the management of Negroes as soon as practicable, the American Baptist Home Mission Society has recently named Prof. Z. T. Hubert, president of Jackson College, Jackson, Miss., to succeed Dr. Luther G. Barrett, a white man. Mr. Hubert is a graduate of Atlanta Baptist College, of Massachusetts Agricultural College and Boston University, and has had long experience as a teacher in the Florida State Agricultural College and with the Home Mission schools in Atlanta. 

EDUCATION

A council of presidents of the schools of the African Methodist Episcopal Church was formed by the sixteen heads of colleges attending the convention in connection with the Wilberforce University commencement. John R. Hawkins, of Kittrell, N. C., secretary of education, was elected president, and J. A. Jones, of Turner Normal School, Nashville, Tenn., secretary. Special committees on college work and general school management were named.

The Tennessee State Board of Education is receiving bids for the Negro normal school to be erected near Nashville. 

The color question in the public schools is before the Supreme Court of Illinois. Aaron Brown, of Quincy, has two children, nine and twelve years old. The board of education of Quincy built a school for the colored children of the 
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