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120    THE CRISIS

the militia during the rioting. Many had told of the militia taking part in the activities of the mob. No one could tell of having seen them do any part of their duty.
  
When Colonel Tripp assumed the stand, he carried under his arm a substantial document. Upon being sworn in, he proceeded to open this document and began to read. The committee objected strenuously, and the Colonel was obliged to depend on his mind.
  
He told the committee of being called out of bed early on the morning of July 2, of leaving Springfield at four o'clock and of reaching East St. Louis at eight. Upon reaching East St. Louis, he said he went straight to the office of Mayor Mollman.
  
There he was informed by the Mayor that he himself was not feeling well that day and had been advised not to go out.
  
Considerable amusement was expressed in the courtroom at this statement from the Mayor. The committee asked Colonel Tripp if he thought the Mayor's indisposition were physical of mental. Colonel Tripp replied that he thought it was mental, that the Mayor was "laying down on his job." 
  
Mayor Mollman appointed City Attorney Thomas Fekete to act in his place that day, co-operating with Mr. Fekete, Colonel Tripp took charge of the situation. When the officer told the committee that he spent the entire morning at the City Hall, mapping out a plan of campaign, Mr. Cooper ejaculated: "You could have planned half the battle of Verdun in that time!"
  
Colonel Tripp strove manfully to  make the committee understand that he was not in active charge of the militia that day, that he was present in an administrative capacity only, leaving Colonel E.P. Clayton, the commanding officer of the field forces. It is clear that Colonel Clayton did not understand this arrangement, for it was under his command that the militia had controlled the May rioting so effectively. When Colonel Tripp endeavored to make it clear to the committee the character of his position, he said: "It is like the President. He doesn't go out on active duty" Mr. Johnson replied caustically: "We see. You and the President don't go out."
  
Of the few companies of militia which straggled into East St. Louis during the morning of July 2, none was properly equipped. Ammunition was scarce among them--a fact the mob was not slow to find out. It was learned later that the majority of them had been enlisted only a few days. Many of them came from counties adjoining St. Clair County and shared the sentiment of East St. Louis toward the Negro.
  
The September issue of THE CRISIS, containing the East St. Louis Supplement, played an important part in the investigation by the Congressional Committee. Its sweeping data, with pictures, gave the committee the best available publication to study in connection with its inquiry.
  
The representative of THE CRISIS had obtained the original of the photographs published by the magazine and submitted them to the committee. After hearing Colonel Tripp's account of the competent behavior of the soldiers, a member of the committee confronted the officer with a photograph showing the militia standing by in large numbers while the mob assaulted a Negro in front of a street car. Colonel Tripp stated that he was unable to place the locality shown in the picture. Paul Y. Anderson, a reporter of the St. Louis Post Dispatch who had given the committee valuable evidence, was called to assist the military officer. Mr Anderson told the committee that the picture was taken at the conjunction of Broadway and Collinsville Avenues.
  
Colonel Tripp testified that after spending the morning at the City Hall, planning a campaign by which the city Hall, planning a campaign by which the city might be restored to order. he then spent an hour at lunch. By comparing evidence it was ascertained that while the commanding officer of the military forces was at lunch, three men were killed at a distance of not over three blocks away!" 
  
During the afternoon, a meeting of the mayor and a number of business men was held, at which the Mayor called Governor Lowden by long distance telephone and begged him to have martial law declared in the city. Speaking on the same call Colonel Tripp took the receiver and assured the Governor that he had the situation well in hand and that martial law was unnecessary. Colonel Tripp gave as his reason for this statement the fact that had martial law been declared, the military forces would have been deprived of the assistance of the police force, whereas if civil law were maintained, the military and 

THE WAY OF THE TRANSGRESSOR  121

police forces could both operate to quell the riot.
 
Considering that only fifteen out of forty men which constituted the police force of East St. Louis had reported for duty that morning, one cannot but feel that Colonel Tripp's loss in the matter of Police assistance would have been light.
  
It is a fact, however, that with the declaration of martial law complete authority would have devolved upon Mayor Mollman. Consequently, each desired the form of government which relieved him of responsibility.
  
Colonel Tripp assured the committee that he had never before heard the stories of the militia shooting Negroes, and that he had made no investigation of the subject. He also stated that he at no time saw any occasion for firing on the mob, taking the chance of wounding and perhaps killing innocent by-standers.
  
Evidence as to the participation of the militia in the rioting was given the committee by any number of witnesses, yet in no case can there be found any indication that acts committed by the militiamen have been punished by the military authorities. Most of these soldiers have been sent to the Border. They have been Federalized and will from now until the close of the war devote their talents to making the world safe for democracy.
  
It was under the command of Colonel Clayton, at seven-thirty in the evening of July 2, that the riot was finally controlled and several hundred persons were arrested. most of these were turned loose by the police as soon as they reached the police station. Of the number who were held until the next day, few were indicted. They were dismissed as rapidly as they could walk out.
  
When Colonel Tripp had completed his testimony, Representative Raker, of California, exclaimed: "What chance on earth has a poor, innocent Negro in a place like this?"

THE WAY OF THE TRANSGRESSOR
A STORY
By WALLACE GREEN
[[image]]

Say, have you heard about that great "come off" that took place out on Big Sandy a few days ago at Uncle Tom Morgan's house?
  
Now lest you should try to find the way to Big Sandy and get lost, let me direct you. After you pass a little country store not far west of here, you follow road that leads toward the north a few yards and then westward again until you pass Bob Goodgame's house, which has a patch of corn next to it, and just beyond the corn patch that foolish man has a fine watermelon patch. Here you will see many a big saucy melon peeping up at you from among the vines, and those delicious musk melons sending forth into the road a sweet smell. Turn northward here again and you will see from the downward slope of the road and the sudden increase in the number of black-jack and elm trees that you are nearing some creek. When
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